Aggression And Violent Behaviour Among Students

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Abstract

Aggressive behaviour problems of illegal and violated norms listed in society is one of the growing problems acute and requires a set of effective solution. Anger is a human feeling. So, practice with students various ways to de-fuse anger. Adults and teachers sometimes get angry, too. Practice with students counting to ten before reacting in anger, and breathing deeply to calm down. This problem not only involves students, but also the parents and the school. In dealing with student discipline problems, there are some steps that need to be done by the various parties. In addressing the issue of student discipline, school authorities should play a major role. The school may take appropriate action on the problem of discipline in schools. Parents themselves must play their character by setting a good example and do things that are not right in front of their children.

This research paper concentrate on different forms or types of aggressive reactions like; Extrapunitive, Intrapunitive, Inpunitiveetc and The various roots or causes of aggression like; Physical, Biological and Hormonal Determinant, . Social and Cultural Determinants and Psychological Sources of Aggression.This paper concude with concern about aggression of students.

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Keywords: Aggression, Extrapunitive, Intrapunitive, Inpunitive, Determinant.

Introduction

Aggressive behaviour by a student is unacceptable; it goes beyond the scope of schools’ normal boundaries. Examples of defiant or hostile behavior by a student include: losing temper easily, constantly arguing with teachers, deliberately engaging in activities that annoy others, blaming others, acting annoyed or chronically touchy, always acting spiteful or vindictive. However, responding to a student’s aggression with yelling or anger makes matters worse. Aggressive behaviour problems of illegal and violated norms listed in society is one of the growing problems acute and requires a set of effective solution So, how do we deal with a student who is aggressive toward other students or teachers, or who frightens everyone by screaming in class to get his/her way? It’s easier said than done. But, we can help him/her to change/replace the behavior, and we can reinforce daily that aggressive and rude behavior at school is unacceptable. Many teenagers don’t know how to communicate their needs to parents or teachers and have not learned non-aggressive ways to solve problems. Aggressiveness in students may be triggered by several things: as a self-defence reaction, being placed in a stressful situation, lack of routine, extreme frustration or anger, inadequate speech development; over-stimulation, lack of adult supervision, or to mirror aggressive behaviors of others who live with or around them.

Anger is a human feeling. So, practice with students various ways to de-fuse anger. Adults and teachers sometimes get angry, too. Practice with students counting to ten before reacting in anger, and breathing deeply to calm down. Aggressive behaviour problems of illegal and violated norms listed in society is one of the growing problems acute and requires a set of effective solution. Michael Gelder (2005) mention that aggressive is an act of extreme aggression can be problematic students discipline among the students that affect treatment and behaviour of students. Disciplinary problems created pressure on the students, families, school, community and country. Discipline is the power of social control indispensable for the creation of a peaceful and conditions.

According to Smith et.al (2003), children and adolescents with this disorder have great difficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. They are often viewed by other children, adults and social agencies as “bad” or delinquent, rather than mentally ill. Many factors may contribute to a child developing conduct disorder, including brain damage, child abuse, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic life experiences.

Aggressive behaviour is behaviour that causes physical or emotional harm to others, or threatens to. It can range from verbal abuse to the destruction of personal property. People with aggressive behaviour tend to be irritable, impulsive, and restless. Generally speaking, aggressive behaviour stems from an inability to control behaviour, or from a misunderstanding of what behaviours are appropriate. Failure to communicate and interact well makes them particularly teenagers facing problems and conduct disorders began to show negative attitude inconsistent with the proper attitude to be maintained in their teens.

In addition, socio unhealthy atmosphere also encourage and resulted in aggressive behaviour problems among students. Teachers are autocratic and domineering will lead students are always in a state of emotional discomfort and distress. For examples unstable emotion such as anxiety, fear, and extreme nervousness will create an atmosphere of student emotions or situations of uncertainty and distress. Consequently, repressed emotions will affect the student’s ability to receive input instruction to be conveyed by the teacherStudents who come from poor families are more inclined to commit disciplinary problems. This is so because they are unable to get something, and then use the wrong thing, besides, the students who come from poor families often marginalized and humiliated. Following this notice will create dissatisfaction that can result in disciplinary matters. For example, frequent looting carried out by students from economically disadvantaged.

All these factors are considers to effect of aggressive behaviour of adolescent. By the way the important things are how the adolescent bring you and control its behaviour so as not to be too aggressive. These factors are only assumptions about themselves but the fact that adolescent only knows the reason why they behave so aggressive against the rules, especially in school.

Unconsciously aware of student discipline problems result from this aggressive action available is growing every year. This problem not only involves students, but also the parents and the school. In dealing with student discipline problems, there are some steps that need to be done by the various parties. In addressing the issue of student discipline, school authorities should play a major role. The school may take appropriate action on the problem of discipline in schools. The term aggression examined from a general stand point has been used in a very broad sense by many to include all overt acts of hostility, attack, violence, assertion, intrusion, destruction and combat etc. The covert acts of aggression also include sarcastic remarks, taunts, abuse, undue criticism, character assassination, scandal, mongering, mocking etc.

Types of Aggression:

Aggressive behaviour may manifest itself in different forms or types. Rosenzweig (1934) has put forward a substantial classification of different types of aggressive reactions to frustration.

  1. Extrapunitive: In some reactions and responses aggression is directed to the external environment like blaming others and this is called “Extrapunitive”.
  2. Intrapunitive: When the frustrated person turns his aggressive feelings towards self it is known as “Intrapunitive”, popularly called self aggression. Here the sufferer may simply blame himself for the frustration or cause of aggression. The most dramatic form of self aggression is suicide.
  3. Inpunitive: It is the last type of aggressive reaction where the individual tries to avoid the blame altogether and attempts to switch over the problem. He may release his tension to some extent by reasoning and rationalizing. This classification of aggression by Rosenzweig covers more or less different types of aggression.

Aggressive behaviour may also manifest itself in two basic forms: such as Interpersonal and Intergroup forms. Murders, attack, riot, looting etc. are examples of inter personal aggression. War among nations, conflicts among groups of people is examples of intergroup aggression.

There is also another form of aggression called Institutionalized aggression which has the sanction of a group or society. Punishment awarded to the law breakers and criminals come under this category. This punishment becomes exemplary to the law breakers. It is awarded with the purpose to give a signal or warning to others not to indulge in anti social or criminal acts. This type of institutionalized aggression is looked upon as an act of retaliation on the part of the society.

Between the interpersonal and inter group forms of aggression the first form has no sanction of the society, rather hatred towards the culprits. But the second form has got sanctions of the society and law.

Interpersonal violence is illegal and it is fit for punishment. Secondly interpersonal violence without having any social sanction and not being accepted by human values and traditions creates strong sense of guilty and anxiety in the aggressive activity.

Sources of Aggression:

Determinants of aggression are also called causes or sources of aggression. Like frustration aggression may be the outcome of physical or biological and genetic factors, social, cultural, psychological and economic factors. There has been a lot of controversy regarding the roots of aggression.

The various roots or causes of aggression are discussed below:

  • Physical, Biological and Hormonal Determinant:

Though the modern psychologists emphasize environmental and socio-cultural factors as major determinants of aggression, it does not imply that the biological and genetic factors have absolutely no role in human aggression. In-fact, they have some role. Besides Freud and his associate’s earlier view, some recent research findings indicate the role of hormonal influences in aggressive behaviour. Especially the male sex hormone Testosterone may play a role in aggression. Drugs that reduce the level of testosterone in violent human males seem to reduce their aggression. Further research on prisoners indicates that testosterone level becomes higher in those who have committed unprovoked violent crimes than among those who have committed nonviolent crimes. Also testosterone levels seem to be related not only to aggression, but also to per social behaviour which refers to helpful and positive behaviour.

  • Social and Cultural Determinants and Psychological Sources of Aggression:

Most experts agree that human aggression is influenced more strongly by a wide range of situational factors. Some cultures are much more peaceful and do not appreciate at all any type of violence. Several American thinkers and social scientists have raised the point that aggression and violence are dominant themes of American Culture, because they say that its short history is full- of violent happenings. India on the other hand is a peace loving country and Indian society does not appreciate aggressive behaviour of its citizens.

Prejudice, which is otherwise called judgement made in advance, is one of the important causes of aggression. Prejudice grows in the society and in the minds of men. Social conditions are responsible for the growth of prejudice. Daily we are exposed to various frustrations and social situations leading to aggressive acts. Aggression originates usually from t he behaviour of a person and others see these negative emotions and imitate them.

  • Direct Provocation:

Direct provocation from another person is another social factor that often plays a role in aggression. due to direct provocation, violence, assault, aggression and various other crimes take place. Verbal insults and physical actions interpreted as aggressive in nature often lead to the persons in the receiving end to reciprocate with the result that aggression and counter aggression can develop.

  • Economic Factors:

Economically disadvantaged persons being unable to provide a stimulating environment, proper facility and care to their children, expose them to a lot of frustrations. The parents of poor families also face tremendous difficulties for making a good living. These factors independently or combined expose the children to frustrating experiences to which they react with aggression. Economic insecurity stands on the way of their all-round development. So they indulge in violence and assault being overburdened with frustration and rage. They blame the society for their helplessness and misfortune. They feel that they are being exploited by the higher economic groups and rebel, revolt in the long run. But that does not mean that people from rich families with all facilities, growing up in a secured and stimulating environment do not show violence and aggression.

  • Prejudice:

Prejudice though is a form of aggression, in a wider sense it actually facilitates aggression. Hostility in situations is often expressed as a form of prejudice. Because of prejudice, one group may disapprove the beliefs, values, actions and style of living of another person. Readily identifiable qualities of the target group like colour of the skin, poverty, backwardness, sex, strange religious practices, dress, and illiteracy, may lead to hostility towards the out group. This may subsequently culminate into a feeling of aggression or an act of violence against the target group.

Conclusion

It is undeniable that the problem of aggression among adolescents which hit our country has increased substantially recently. Teens nowadays life is full of challenges for progress and modernity so that they live in freedom. Parents play the most important role in combating social problems because they are the closest relatives for their children. Parents themselves must play their character by setting a good example and do things that are not right in front of their children. This is because children like whites who do not know about anything and parents are the person responsible for the fill in the blank. Parents must provide teaching and instruction to their children at an early age so they’re high personal qualities. Furthermore, parents should foster friendly relations among their children. Inaddition, the school is also one of the ways that you can prevent these problems. Teachers seem to parents of young adults in the school. Teachers advise and assist them should they encounter any problems in school. Teachers of religion, moral education and civic and citizenship education’s role is to provide religious and moral education to the students. This subject is a step towards forming a noble personality of the adolescent and also serves to foster positive values among teenagers. Students who have faith and strong moral values are believed to be easily deceived by a friend to do something immoral. School counselling and guidance unit shall conduct regular counselling sessions with students, especially those involved with discipline problems so as to form self-confident in their persons.

Reference

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  2. Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression, Annual Review of Psychology.
  3. Jigau, M., Liiceanu, A., &Preoteasa, L. (2006). Violence in school. Bucharest: UNICEF.
  4. Triandis, H.C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
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