Case Study: Attachment Theory

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 Attachment theory is psychologial model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long term interpersonal relationships between humans develops curiosity and exploration,self-soothing and self -regulation most importantly have close bounds. (John .B 1973)supports that the principle theory of attachment is to a care givers is one of the first and most basic needs in an infants life. However over the years is grown to exploring adults with how their relate with friends and family members. Erickson’s also supports that there are eight stages four for childhood and eight for adulthood. This stages are:

  • Stage 1-Trust versus mistrust at the age of one year
  • Stage 2-Autonomy versus shame and doubt at the age two-three years
  • Stage 3-Initiative versus guilt at the four to six years
  • stage 4-Industry versus inferiority age six to puberty
  • stage 5-Indentity versus confusion Adolensence
  • stage 6-Intimancy versus isolation Early adulthood
  • stage 7-Generativity versus self-absortion middle adulthood
  • Stage 8-Intergrity versus dis pear late adulthood

on the other hand John bowlby and Mary Ainsworth defined attachment behaviour and the quality of the resulting bond developed by an infact with the parents in the first year of life the bond develops and the attachment behaviour of the child can be classified as secure, insecure or disoriented. John Bolby (1910-1993) is the founder of this theory.

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Attachment refers to the special bond and lasting relationship that young children form with one or more adults. According to ( shofield and Beek 2006) an infant attachment behaviour can attract the care givers attention in a positive way.

Attachment security is important from toddlers. Pre-school and primary years and also in adolescents are likely to engage in excessive drinking, drug use and risky sexual behaviour. According to (Moretti and Paled 2004). Adolescents benefit from parenting that encourages autonomy but also offering warmth, behaviour monitoring and limit setting. The most important distinction is between insecure and secure attachment ( insecure and disorgarnised attachment patterns are common .According to reserarch done by Mary Ainsworth using strange situation procedure ( Shemmings 2011).

According to research secure attachment (55% of the population)happens when a hild is cared by sensitive and responsive care givers. Children who are securely attached are able to regulate their distressand know they can show their feelings and needs without being rejected. Insecure avoidant attachment is 23% of the population, on the other hand 8% of the population have insecure ambivalent attachment .these children exaggerate their attachment behaviour to attract attention( Shemmings 2011, Brown and Ward 2013)

Wayne may have suffered from disorgarnised attachment.

Persornality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving, in latin personality originates from latin persona, which means mask. Personality embraces moods, attitudes and opinions which is mostly clearly expressed in interactions with other people. On the other hand the Greek Physian Hipprocates that they bodily fluid known as humors{blood(red), black bile, yellow bile, phlegm(blue)}which are agrued that they have impacts on human personality moods, emotions, traits and behavioursIn other words it is behaviours that are that are both inherented and acquired that we are able to differentiate one person from another hence by being observed. It potrayes diferrent character thems together, that Sangine-Pleasure, seeking sociable and outs going, Choleric-ambitious, leader-like and opinionted Melacholic-cautious, thoughtful, well organised Phegmatic-quiet, calm even-tempered. Model of personality is judged by five factors that are: agreeableness, openness, extraversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness, the highness and lowness of this gives the traits of a person.

Personaliy disorders,(NHS) is when a person thinks, feels behaves or relates to others very different from the average and also some various traits are associated with this condition. In other words it is a continuous pattern of the inner man that is different from the humanity expectation social rules and cultures which is reflected at an early age or adolensence and may lead to distress or impact most importantly mental health problems.They are different types of personality disorder they are:Sociopathic,narcissistic,borderline,histrionic,paranoid,avoidant,dependent,obsessive-compulsive,passive-aggressive,schizoid and schizotypal.

However science defines personality disorder with a pattern,where problem solving mode as observing self where is normal mildly. Dysfunctional-moderately dysfunctional while as drama/choose mode where one lack of observing self which is markedly dysfunctional. It is interpreted with cognition(ways of perceiving and interpreting self, other people and events), affectively(the range, intensity, lability and appropriateness of emotional response), interpersonal functioning and impulse control. Mostly importsntly personality disorders can be classified in three clusters: which are:

  • Cluster A-here persons encompasses odds given another names eccentric behaviours.
  • Cluster B-here persons encompasses dramatic emotional also known as etratic behaviours.
  • Clusters C-here persons encompassing anxious and fearful behaviours.

In the case above Wayne has a possibility of have both borderline personality disorder as well as histrionic which are classified as cluster B. As he has borderline personality as (NHS), defines this as a person tends to have disturbed ways of thinking, impulsive behaviour and problems controlling their emotions, hence unstable relationships and worry about people abandoning them. (John G. 1984) goes ahead and agrues that this was a major issues in the 1970 as it created a broad awareness of this syndrome among mental health professionals backed by Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

Wayne has been with several girlfriends throughtout school and college which means,he is up and down relationships with others, He is up and down relationships with others. He has self doubt and self image issues as he feels uncertain about his attractiveness and self-image. Wayne is in relationship with Helen however Helen ex-boyfriend makes Wayne uncomfortable as he is extremely anxious which is an emotional storms and can be quite paranoid. They have ended up breaking up which leaves Wayne devasted and way has discovered the reality which is emotional storms and can be paranoid. They break-up which leaves Wayne devasted and way has discovered the reality which has caused him stress and anger and now he follows them in social media making real trouble in their relationship by posting negative comments.

Wayne has also a possibility of having histrionic personality disorder as it is defined as having intense unstable emotion and distorted self-images, for that matter their self-esteem depends on the approval of other and does not arise from true self-worth.Wayne keep changing relationships from one person to another which is evident to his relationship with Helen as it was difficult maintining his relationship and shallow in dealing with others as he cannot bear helen ex-boyfriend in university.  

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