Effect Of Cystic Fibrosis On The Pancreatic Secretion
Cystic fibrosis affects around 1 out of every 2000 population. Gene mutation in chlorine channel protein called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is the main cause of cystic fibrosis. Mutation in CFTR restricts chlorine ion regulation across the membrane due to which ion gathers and block the nasal pathway.
To regulate chlorine ions and remove blockage aldosterone is injected through a multi-electrode irrigated balloon catheter. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone that balances chlorine ion concentration and also shows an impact on the metabolism of fats.
Thus the interaction of aldosterone with the epithelium of the pleural cavity results in clearance of nasal pathway which further leads towards the treatment of cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal disease that is caused by a gene mutation in chromosome number 7. Cystic fibrosis life-shortening disease. Cystic fibrosis mainly affects the digestive and respiratory tract but it also has an effect on pancreatic secretions.
Cause of cystic fibrosis
It is caused due to gene mutation in the CFTR gene. This mutation is further divided into six sub-divided classes. Mutants of class vi cause wild folds in amino-acid chains which results in cystic fibrosis.
CFTR gene instructs the production of a protein called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance. This protein acts as a channel that regulates negative chlorine ions. Thus mutation in the CFTR gene results in abnormal protein production and disturbs cl- transportation.
The factor which contributes predominantly to cystic fibrosis is an accumulation of chloride ions due to dysfunctional regulation of cell electrolytes and water.
For the treatment of cystic fibrosis or to suppress the negative effect of it on the human body, it is necessary to administrate or cater accumulation of chloride ions on pleura membrane (membrane of lungs) and on a functional unit called alveoli.
Function of CFTR
CFTR controls the counter-current exchange of salts (NaCl and other essential salts) and water in blood vessels penetrating lungs. Malfunctioning of positive ions channels and the inability of chloride.
Due to the effective working action of sodium-potassium channels and neuron activity, na++ ions are easily regulated leaving behind only cl- ions. These ions accumulate resulting in phlegm (thick and sticky mucus produced in lungs).
The counter-current exchange of cl- secretion, and absorption of na+ ions is essential for the maintenance of blood volume and osmotic volume of extracellular fluids in the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract. Moreover, it also helps in protection from bacteria and assures clearance of nasal pathways.
Role of aldosterone
Aldosterone hormone which is produced by zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland plays a pivotal role in the homeostatic role in blood pressure and level of electrolytes such as na+, k+, and cl- ions. Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of chloride ions by conjugation with sodium ions. This helps in the maintenance of electrochemical balance.
The multi-electrode irrigated balloon catheter
The multi-electrode irrigated balloon catheter can be used in the process for better distribution of fluid inside the catheter into the body cavity or targeted organ. Metab catheter consists of multiple balloons which help in equal distribution of fluid inside the catheter.
Following research, methodology proposes that aldosterone fluid encoded in catheter balloons can be injected into the pleural cavity to treat cystic fibrosis by regulating electrolytic (chlorine ion) concentration.
For insertion of catheter balloon inflated with aldosterone fluid and release of aldosterone fluid in body following measures are there to follow:
Aldosterone is extracted from mammalian adrenal glands (in 1953 pure aldosterone was extracted from beef adrenal glands by research groups in England and Switzerland. The same process can be applied to extract aldosterone from the mammalian gland in this procedure too.
Storage of aldoserone:
Extracted pure aldosterone can then be store in a container from where needles can be filled to inflate the catheter balloon.
Insertion of catheter balloon:
A catheter balloon is inserted by surgical method against the wall of cavity or organoid of where problem is to be treated.
The catheter balloon must be deflated before inserting inside the pleural cavity.
After insertion of balloon inside body cavity hollow needles are used to inflate the balloon. Hollow needles empty the fluid into the distal end of the catheter balloon. The main lumen consists of at least one tapered end to prevent the backflow of liquid.
Release of liquid from catheter balloon inside body cavity:
Fluid is pumped from the pump through the lumen into ducts and interacts with the external environment through holes. The liquid is equally and properly distributed among cells.
Interaction of aldosterone with the pleural surface:
Liquid aldosterone regulating in pleural cavity can pass through pleural membrane thus reaching lung surface. From the lung surface, aldosterone can easily be taken up by blood capillaries and veins. On entering the circulatory system aldosterone hormone will balance electrolytic concentration inside pleural veins by countercurrent exchange method.
Countercurrent exchange and ion regulation:
The countercurrent exchange method will regulate chlorine ion concentration by enhancing the re-absorption of chlorine ions in blood capillaries and veins. Since cytosol concentration of chloride ions is 20,000 to 100,000 less than that of ECF concentration counter current exchange would help in re-absorption and balancing of cl- ions. Aldosterone also plays a minor role in the metabolism of fatty acids. Fatty acids would generate trans membrane ph gradient (phin < out), positive ion (h+, na+) potentials are used by an ionophore to transport chlorine ions by countercurrent exchange
Regulation of electrolytes:
Aldosterone would stimulate cl ions regulation by conjugating them with sodium ions this would further stimulate the flow of chlorine ions which were gathered at the pleural surface and would get rid off obstruction caused by chloride ions.
Removal of catheter balloon:
After this catheter balloon is removed from the body cavity through a surgical method.
Aims and objectives
This proposal is expected to cure cystic fibrosis either completely or partially. CFRD mostly affects the pancreas. It makes pancreatic secretions thick and causes blockage in the duct which leads to a decrease in digestive enzyme activity. CFRD (cystic fibrosis-related diabetes) is considered type 3 diabetes and is more severe than type 1 and type 2. Treating CFTR would help in lowering the risk of CFRD. Pleural effusion can also be treated by removing the blockage in the lungs’ surface and regulating water. Treating CFTR would also help in catering to phlegm production which causes blockage in the nasal pathway. This technique if executable can also help in the treatment of atherosclerosis (obstruction of an artery due to fat and cholesterol accumulation).