Job Satisfaction: Literature Review
Prasoon and Chaturvedi (2016) have demonstrated job satisfaction. As per the research, it is defined as the acknowledgment of doing the job with full dedication and hard work. It has been found that the level of job satisfaction leads to determine the overall performance of an organization. In addition to this, it has been found that the level of job satisfaction depends upon the various set of components in an organization. The major components which are identified as an important asset for job satisfaction are supervision, promotion, operating conditions, nature of work, contingent rewards, and other factors. The study will focus on the job satisfaction aspect of the businesses in Australia.
In contrast to this, McPhail et al (2015) have defined that the Australian adult population is categorized as the most educated people. It has been defined within OECD. This includes the set of regions named as Iceland, Germany, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands. The level of achievement is not defined without including the pitfalls over the increase in performance. This affects the level of job satisfaction among the employees working in different sectors of the Australian organization. This also affects the overall economic growth of the country. Job satisfaction is important for determining the well-being of people within the labor market of Australia.
Kenny et al (2016) have evaluated six different measures of workplace and job satisfaction. This helps in investigating the relationship between job satisfaction and education in Australia. It helps in increasing the potential among the employees and produces biased results. An Australian focus is mainly over the commonwealth government. It has gained control over both legislative houses in the 2004 election. On gaining both houses, the government had introduced wide-sweeping reforms over the workplace relation system of Australia. Concerning this, an act was passed Conciliation and Arbitration Act in 1904. The motive of introducing this act was to suggest the reforms. These reforms helped in defining the requirement level of flexibility in workplace relations.
On opposing to the above-discussed fact, Alotaibi (2016) suggested that employees need to be provided prospective services as they have the power to mobilize the employers. To deal effectively with the upcoming situation, it has been defined as useful to demonstrate the pre-reform snapshot. This snapshot is related to the job satisfaction situation faced among the employees. The level of job satisfaction depends on the type of employment provided to the employees of various sectors.
Wilson (2015) has found that the level of job satisfaction depends on the personal and organizational variables. In which personal variables are defined as the set of the activities and roles defined by individual aspects. An organizational variable is defined as the way of overcoming the unstable or varying conditions identified in an organization. In addition to this, organizational development and policies of benefits and compensation also affect the overall job satisfaction defined in Australian Organizations.
On agreeing to the above information and data Al Maqbali (2015), in Australia, it has been found that the long-term level of job satisfaction requires careful planning. This planning needs to be supported by workers and management of an organization. On continuing this, managers are encouraged and motivated to implement the set of various motivational theories. These motivational theories include Maslow’s (1943) and Herzberg’s (1957). These theories create good combination factors. It helps in contributing to stimulating, supportive, rewarding, and challenging working environment. On combining these factors, job satisfaction is a combination of events and situations experienced by people within their jobs.
As per the views of (Marchand and Peckham (2017), job satisfaction within Australia has been achieved by defining a happy workplace. It is a place where people feel motivated and relaxed. It helps in increasing productivity among the people. It reduces the dedication of human resources in solving the grievances of the workplace. The increases in happiness and satisfaction among employees have established the number of a positive relationship with business performance. The higher level of job satisfaction among the employees decreases the staff turnover and absenteeism in an organization.
Dall’Ora (2016) analyzed that the success and growth of an organization are directly proportional to the job satisfaction of an employee. It has been defined that the business that excels employer satisfaction faces the decrease in overall turnover rate by 50%. This decreases the overall development and growth of an organization. In addition to this Tahghighi et al (2017) have defined that more satisfied workers, stimulate positive actions. This helps in improving the company identification of variables. It affects the level of employee satisfaction. In addition to this, job satisfaction has been also affected by customer loyalty in direct and indirect ways. The value of the type of services received by customers contributes to defining customer satisfaction.
Atif et al (2015) researched Australian doctors. It aimed to identify the level of satisfaction among doctors. The results were defined by the longitudinal survey of doctors named as MABEL. The aim of conducting the survey was to compare the determinants of job satisfaction among four groups of a doctor. It included specialists, non-specialists oh hospital, training specialists, and general practitioners. For data collection, a national cross-sectional survey was done. It showed that 87% of doctors were moderately satisfied with their jobs.
As per Tessier (2016), the new HLDA survey has revealed the level of job satisfaction among the Australian workers. Based on which it has been found that only 40 % of Australian workers or employees possess a higher level of job satisfaction. Among which 36% of workers have been found to balance work and non-work commitments in terms of flexibility. The remaining of 26% of workers is found to be unsatisfied with their jobs. On analyzing the views of Ramkissoon and Mavondo (2015) it has been found there are various components which affect the overall level of job satisfaction. Among which the components included are job payment and working hours. This factor attracts the highest level of customer satisfaction. As per the analysis of report about 30% of workers are defined to be unsatisfied or not satisfied with the working hours and total wages.
According to the survey done in Australia, Johnston (2016) have evaluated that the youngest and oldest working generations of working have a higher level of job satisfaction. it is 33% of people being highly satisfied with their jobs. In comparison to this, the level of satisfaction among the young generation is 24% and the level of satisfaction among the old generation is 28%. In contrast to this, Alfayad and Arif (2017) found that the level of job satisfaction defined based on occupation has been determined. It has been estimated that workers having mid-skills concerning their occupation are highly satisfied with their jobs. It has been calculated to be 38% of high-level satisfaction.
In addition to this Sinclair (2017) defined that occupation-based over personal care service workers and community have a higher level of job satisfaction. These sectors include workers from aged care sectors, childcare sectors, emergency services, travel workers and other sectors. It has been evaluated that 35% of these workers are highly satisfied with their jobs and 32% of workers belonging to administrative and clerical sectors are satisfied with their jobs. According to this, the level of job satisfaction in food services and accommodation sector is regulated. It has been found that 26% of workers are unsatisfied with their job. This sector includes workers working as part-time in restaurants; take away food services, bars, and cafes. In addition to this, it has been found that 26% of workers are highly satisfied, 52% of workers are satisfied with their job, 19% of workers are moderately satisfied, and 3% of workers are not satisfied with their job.
Yu and Wright (2016) have analyzed that the workers belonging to a lower level of occupation are more likely to be unsatisfied with the job. In this, about 20% of machinery operators, drivers, sales workers, and laborers have a low level of job satisfaction. Along with the job satisfaction level in an individual industry has been evaluated. These industries include forestry, agriculture, fishing, recreation, and arts services. Among these industries, the level of job satisfaction is found to be high among the workers. It has been found to be 38%. In terms of defining other services, 37% of workers are satisfied with their jobs. These services include a wide range of religious, personal, interest group, and civic services.
On concluding the entire discussion over job satisfaction, Marchand and Peckham (2017) have evaluated that the overall level of performance and growth within an organization depends on the level of job satisfaction defined among the workers and employees. Furthermore, there is evidence that the relative wages help in defining a higher level of job satisfaction as compared to that of the absolute level. It has been also defined that the overall level of job satisfaction of workers depends upon the sector to which an organization belongs.
- Al Maqbali, M.A., 2015. Factors that influence nurses’ job satisfaction: a literature review. Nursing Management, 22(2).
- Alfayad, Z. and Arif, L.S.M., 2017. Employee voice and job satisfaction: An application of Herzberg two-factor theory. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(1), pp.150-156.
- Alotaibi, J., Paliadelis, P.S. and Valenzuela, F.R., 2016. Factors that affect the job satisfaction of S audi A Arabian nurses. Journal of nursing management, 24(3), pp.275-282.
- Atif, K., Khan, H.U. and Maqbool, S., 2015. Job satisfaction among doctors, a multi-faceted subject studied at a tertiary care hospital in Australia. Australia journal of medical sciences, 31(3), p.610.
- Dall’Ora, C., Ball, J., Recio-Saucedo, A. and Griffiths, P., 2016. Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing: A literature review. International journal of nursing studies, 57, pp.12-27.
- Johnston, A., Abraham, L., Greenslade, J., Thom, O., Carlstrom, E., Wallis, M. and Crilly, J., 2016. Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 28(1), pp.7-26.
- Kenny, P., Reeve, R. and Hall, J., 2016. Satisfaction with nursing education, job satisfaction, and work intentions of new graduate nurses. Nurse education today, 36, pp.230-235.
- Marchand, C. and Peckham, S., 2017. Addressing the crisis of GP recruitment and retention: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract, 67(657), pp.e227-e237.
- McPhail, R., Patiar, A., Herington, C., Creed, P. and Davidson, M., 2015. Development and initial validation of a hospitality employees’ job satisfaction index: Evidence from Australia. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(8), pp.1814-1838.
- Prasoon, R. and Chaturvedi, K.R., 2016. Life satisfaction: a literature review. The Researcher-International Journal of Management Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(2), pp.25-32.
- Ramkissoon, H. and Mavondo, F.T., 2015. The satisfaction–place attachment relationship: Potential mediators and moderators. Journal of Business Research, 68(12), pp.2593-2602.
- Sinclair, S., Raffin-Bouchal, S., Ventura, L., Mijovic-Kondejewski, J. and Smith-MacDonald, L., 2017. Compassion fatigue: A meta-narrative review of the healthcare literature. International journal of nursing studies, 69, pp.9-24.
- Tahghighi, M., Rees, C.S., Brown, J.A., Breen, L.J. and Hegney, D., 2017. What is the impact of shift work on the psychological functioning and resilience of nurses? An integrative review. Journal of advanced nursing, 73(9), pp.2065-2083.
- Tessier, A., Beaulieu, M.D., Mcginn, C.A. and Latulippe, R., 2016. Effectiveness of reablement: a systematic review. Healthcare Policy, 11(4), p.49.
- Wilson, N.A., 2015. Factors that affect job satisfaction and intention to leave of allied health professionals in a metropolitan hospital. Australian Health Review, 39(3), pp.290-294.
- Yu, B. and Wright, E., 2016. Socio-cultural adaptation, academic adaptation and satisfaction of international higher degree research students in Australia. Tertiary Education and Management, 22(1), pp.49-64.