Mahatma Gandhi: The Way Of Life

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 Mahatma Gandhi was a lawyer from India, who made a big effect on Indian. Gandhi was born in northwest of India, the state of Porbandar in 2nd October 1869. Porbandar is well known as a western seaport of India and used on trading for a long time. Gandhi’s house was a rich family and his father worked for the government as a chief minister of Porbandar. His mother had a deep faith in Hinduism and visited the temple a lot and done a lot of fasts throughout her life. When Gandhi was 13 years old, his family moved near Rajkot which is in still in the north​west part of India and about 170 kilometers away from Porbandar. Gandhi went to a better school than Porbandar and the new school has taught Gandhi English. In 1882, Gandhi married with Kasturba who was 13 when they got married and Gandhi was also 13 years old when they got married. They have married because of their parents. Before Mahatma and Kasturba was just a friend. And in the future, Kasturba will be an Indian political Activist. In 1885, a child between Gandhi and Kasturba gives birth but shortly after the child was born, the child past away. Also in 1885, Gandhi’s father passed away with disease and when he passed away Gandhi was having sex with his wife and since he could see his father’s death, Gandhi decided to not have sex anymore unless it’s for reproduction. Gandhi has left to London to learn about law in 1888 right after when he got their first child to survive. He comes back in 1891 and given three children in 1892,1897, and 1900.(Routray)

Gandhi believed in Hinduism and still in the 21st century, most of the Indian population believes in Hinduism. There are over 1.1 billion people who believe in Hinduism and which is around 15% of the people on the Earth. Hinduism is famous for not having a single founder and not having single scripture and not having a common set of teachings. In Hinduism there are 3 gods and they are Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu. Brahma is the first god and Vishnu is the preserver of the universe (Hinduism). Brahma has four heads and there are a lot of beliefs on why Brahma has four heads and four arms. Second god, Shiva has a role of destroying the universe to recreate it. Shiva has a blue face and throat. Also, he says that he has a white body but most of the images show his body in blue. Vishnu is the preserver and protector of the universe. Vishnu has a blue colored skin like Shiva and he has four arms. And his hand carries four objects at any time. A lot of the Hindus are vegetarian and they don’t eat any meat including seafood. But some people eat egg and some don’t and some drink milk and some don’t. Also, it is well known that in Hinduism they are not allowed to eat cow. Reason, why the cow is not allowed in Hindu, is because cows are thought of as a sacred animal. And if someone kills a cow in India, they can be put in jail for the rest of their life. There are some big events in Hindu and one of them is Diwali. Diwali is a festival of lights and it is the most popular festival in South Asia. Diwali celebrates victory over evil and light, knowledge over darkness and ignorance. Diwali is based on the Hindu calendar and it tends to be somewhere in October or November and Diwali continues for 5 days and all of the schools will have a break for five days.

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Gandhi has arrived in South Africa, Durban. When Gandhi arrived on South Africa as a lawyer and went to the court of Durban, the court has told him to take off his turban and Gandhi took that as a disrespect to India and he decided to leave the court. Also when Gandhi was using a train to go to Pretoria and he bought a first​class ticket, but the conductor told him to go to the third​class compartment base. Even though at the time in South Africa there was racism happening between British people and the natives who were Africans and even though Gandhi was Indian, he was sent by the British government as a lawyer so he was supposed to be treated each but he wasn’t. Gandhi couldn’t accept it and said that it was racism and he left the train in Pietermaritzburg and spent the night in the cold station which was his first small move against racism. In 1896 Gandhi returned to India and in 1897 Gandhi and his family went to South Africa. But in 1901 family members returned to India once but two years after, they went back to South Africa. In 1903 Gandhi started sending his messages using writing and established the weekly Indian Opinion. He wrote a lot of articles and he said if he didn’t write these articles, satyagraha would have been impossible. In 1904, writings were published by Gandhi’s Phoenix settlement. This Gandhi’s Phoenix settlement not only published writings but also made clinics, school, and even homes. Gandhi published his first book Indian Home Rule in two languages English and Hind Swaraj. This book talks about his voyage, Gandhi’s political vision, his moral philosophy. This book was banned in both in the United Kingdom and in India but not in South Africa so a lot of people in South Africa read this book. (Gandhi in)

Satyagraha means holding on to the truth in Hindi. Gandhi had a huge meeting in Johannesburg, Empire Theater and there were over three thousand people who attended the meeting. The meeting was to protest against the government which made a law requiring all male Asians to register a fingerprint and carry a pass, and all men who were over eight years old were told to do this. In the meeting, they have concluded that they will not follow the law and choose to go to prison instead. In the prison, some people got shot for refusing to register their fingerprint and burned their passes. Gandhi told people to burn their identity documents outside of the Hamidia Mosque in the Fordsburg and over two thousand documents were burned outside the mosque. The second campaign that they did was at 1913 and they protested about the tax raise for exi​ndentured Indians and they were asked to pay 3 more euros. And they didn’t allow Hindu and Muslim marriages. And during the campaign, Kasturba got arrested at the border when she tried to cross the border and go to Transvaal with a group of women. They did this to protest against Mahatma and Kasturba”s marriage being invalid.

In 1930, Gandhi has stood up to make a big move which is known as the salt march. There was a law that India has to buy salt from Britain at a high price. Since India has a very hot climate, salt is something they need to survive. So Gandhi has come up with an idea of making salt on their own in India. Gandhi started his salt march with only 80 people in the beginning. They have walked to the western coastline and during the walk, a lot of Indians Joined the march. In April, after they walked for 241 miles, they have reached the beach on the Arabian Sea side and there were a lot of people and journalists waiting for him. British officials tried to stop

him from making salt but Gandhi made some salt. Because of making salt over 80,000 people were arrested and a lot of the people got beaten by the police officer. Gandhi was arrested and he was sent to jail. This salt march was widely reported around the world and Gandhi got the Man of the year by Time Magazine and a lot of people got the information on what Gandhi was trying to do.

In 1934, Gandhi has quit from politics and he focused on education, poverty and to help solve the problems that are occurring in India. And when Gandhi heard the news that the United Kingdom were included in the World War II, he decided to launch the quit India movement. But Gandhi and his wife and a few other leaders get caught and put in prison by the British government. They were put in jail for 19 months and during that 19 months Kasturba passed away. In 1945 Gandhi started to negotiate with the government for independence. But he couldn’t get all the support from the citizens. Because some of the people at the time were Muslims and Muslim people didn’t like the way Gandhi was doing things. So Gandhi decided to divide India into two country which is India and Pakistan. Three years after independence, there was shocking news that was told all over India. That Mahatma Gandhi has died. He was shot. Gandhi was visiting the Birla Mandir House on 30th January 1948. He was shot by a man who was against Gandhi and he said that Gandhi was treating Muslims in a bad way. Gandhi was shot 4 bullets in his body. The man who killed Gandhi was caught right after he shot him and got a death penalty. Gandhi’s funeral was done the day after he got killed and his bones were sent to the Ganga river and to the South African sea.

Bibliography

  1. Routray, B. P. (2018, April 04). Kasturba Gandhi. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Kasturba​Gandhi
  2. Mahatma Gandhi. (2018, March 09). Retrieved from https://www.biography.com/people/mahatma​gandhi​9305898
  3. I Wonder ​Gandhi: Reckless teenager to father of India. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/timelines/zpdqmp3
  4. Britannica, T. E. (2015, February 12). Satyagraha. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/satyagraha​philosophy
  5. Andrew, E. (n.d.). Remembering Gandhi’s Salt March. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/news/gandhis​salt​march​85​years​ago
  6. Gandhi in South Africa. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://gandhi.southafrica.net/
  7. Religion: Hinduism. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/
  8. ‘The Assassination of Gandhi, 1948,’ EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2005). 

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