Mental Retardation: Categories, Sign And Symptoms
Categories of Mental retardation:
Mild Mental Retardation
Around 85 percent of the rationally hindered populace is in the somewhat impeded class. Their IQ score ranges from 50 to 75 and they can regularly gain scholastic abilities up to the 6th grade level. They can turn out to be genuinely independent and now and again live freely, with network and social help.
Moderate Mental Retardation
Around 10 percent of the rationally hindered populace is viewed as modestly impeded. Modestly impeded people have IQ scores going from 35 to 55. They can complete work and self-care undertakings with moderate supervision. They ordinarily get relational abilities in youth and can live and work effectively inside the network in an administered situation, for example, a gathering home.
Severe Mental Retardation
Around 3 to 4 percent of the rationally hindered populace is seriously impeded. Seriously hindered people have IQ scores of 20 to 40. They may ace extremely fundamental self-care aptitudes and some relational abilities. Numerous seriously hindered people can live in a gathering home.
Profound Mental Retardation
Just 1 to 2 percent of the rationally hindered populace is delegated significantly impeded. Significantly hindered people have IQ scores under 20 to 25. They might most likely create fundamental self-care and correspondence s Causes of Mental Retardation
Sign and Symptoms:
Individuals with MR have intellectual deficits as well as deficits in adaptive functioning in the conceptual, social, and practical domains (APA, 2013).
Deficits in Intellectual Functions
- Language development
- Problem solving
- Abstract thinking
- Academic learning
- Learning from experience
Deficits in Adaptive Functioning
- Failure to meet developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility
- Limited functioning in one or more daily life activities (e.g., communication, social participation, and independent living) across settings–in the home, school, work, and community).
The level of support needed for adaptive functioning (i.e., performance of basic life skills) determines the severity level for MR. According to the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), the signs and symptoms of adaptive functioning deficits across domains may include:
- Slow language development (children learn to talk later, if at all)
- Slow development of pre-academic skills
- Difficulties in academic learning (reading, writing, mathematics)
- Difficulty understanding concepts of time and money
- Problems with abstract thinking (concrete approach to problem solving)
- Difficulties in executive function (i.e., planning, strategizing, priority setting, cognitive flexibility)
- Problems with short-term memory
- Difficulties with functional use of academic skills such as money management and time management
- Limitations in language and communication skills
- More concrete and less complex spoken language (if used), compared with peers
- Limited vocabulary and grammatical skills
- Receptive language that may be limited to comprehension of simple speech and gestures
- Communication that may occur through non spoken means only—such as gestures, signs, facial expressions, and other forms of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)
- Social Skills
- Immature social judgment and decision making
- Difficulty understanding peer social cues and social rules
- Emotional and behavioral regulation difficulties that may adversely affect social interactions
- Requiring different levels of support for daily life activities such as
- Personal care
- Complex tasks (e.g., shopping, transportation, care organization, meals, money management)
- Health care and legal decisions
- Household tasks
- Recreational skills
People with MR and related language and correspondence issue may exhibit signs and indications of communicated in and composed language issue over the areas of phonology, morphology and linguistic structure, semantics, and pragmatics. See communicated in language issue and composed language issue (as of now a work in progress) for data identified with language appreciation and creation, various methods of correspondence (e.g., AAC), and conduct troubles just as social and passionate issues experienced by people with language issue.
People with MR are a heterogeneous gathering; correspondence capacities shift and might be non-emblematic (e.g., motions, vocalizations, issue practices) and additionally representative (e.g., words, signs, pictures). See Communication Characteristics: Selected Populations With a Mental Retardation for instances of normal correspondence examples of people with ASD, cerebral paralysis, Down disorder, fetal liquor disorder, and Fragile X disorder, all of which most regularly co-happen with MR.