Reasons And Impact Of The Industrial Revolution
In the 18th century caused by the agricultural revolution, enclosure, and Britain’s population growth. That bring about the surplus of the agricultural labor force, people have to seek new employment, a new revolution began – Industrial Revolution.
Owing to that people developed new transportation systems (trains, boats, automobiles) and some new inventions like spinning Jenny, Newcomen steam engine and Watt steam engine etc. Cause of Newcomen steam engine and Watt steam engine developed, “The demand for coal skyrocketed throughout the Industrial Revolution and beyond, as it would be needed to run not only the factories used to produce manufactured goods, but also the railroads and steamships used for transporting them.”(history.com)
Industrial Revolution that changes Britain a lot. Before the Industrial Revolution starts, British textile business was the whole handwork, and need a lot of practical experience. But “Starting in the mid-18th century, innovations like the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, the water frame and the power loom made weaving cloth and spinning yarn and thread much easier. Producing cloth became faster and required less time and far less human labor.”(history.com)Cause that it resulted in two new social classes (Industrial working-class and Industrial middle class).
The industrial working class and Industrial middle class both lived in cities but the Industrial working class they are faced hard working conditions and had no security of employment and the Industrial middle class are moderately wealthy professionals and built factories bought machines and developed markets. And it also changes the living model. In Industrial working-class children need to find a job to earn family income and women struggling to make ends meet and keep families out of slums. But most Industrial middle-class women don’t work, but their families have the ability to send their children to school.
Why did it call a “Revolution” and not a “movement”? Revolution’s the changing that too fast that people can’t adapt to it. For example, at the end of the 18th century, Influenced by the American Revolution and King Louis XVI extravagant spending that bring France to the brink of bankruptcy. French citizens are dissatisfied with the French monarchy and poor economic policy so they start a revolution – French Revolution. During this period, French citizens razed and redesigned their country’s political landscape, uprooting centuries-old institutions such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system. (history.com) But it also caused a lot of extreme behavior, extremism and the emergence of insurgents make it gradually become a massacre. Movement it’s the change that slowly changes people’s thinking model or some rules. Like the Abolitionist Movement – people that want the liberation of all slaves. It starts in 1830 and ends in 1870. Cause by the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (allowed Missouri to become a slave state, which further provoked anti-slave sentiment in the North. (history.com) ), Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 a movement start, people start to advocate and support this movement. In 1863 Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation, calling for the freeing of slaves in areas of the rebellion. Until the 1870 passage of the Fifteenth Amendment extended voting rights to black men. This movement takes 50 years to free the salve and the French Revolution takes 10 years but during that people doesn’t complete the abolition of the monarchy.
Overall, Industrial Revolution is a revolution, because it has reshaped human history. It also affects our life now, if there was no Industrial Revolution we can’t live like now, the Industrial Revolution indirectly affects the development of science and technology, economic development and population that change the world a lot.