Research Method On Media Education

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Introduction

This course consists of phenomenon-driven and multidisciplinary research on media education, such as education, media studies, social sciences, humanities, and information science. I need to read and analyze different journal and articles that are within the field of Media Education. I can learn how to generate the Master Thesis idea based on my research interests. I think this course is the basic one, and I will learn different methods of research (e.g., quantitative, qualitative, and even mixed method) next semester. In this course, I found the lectures are formed from three themes of media education; 1) Media in Teaching and Learning, 2) Media in Society and 3) Media and Psychosocial Well-being.

Topic: Engagement Enhances Well‐Being in Simulation‐Based Healthcare Education

During medical training and future careers, many medical students will face many stressful and hardship situations, and even burnout. From my experience, I was a physiotherapy student and needed to attend different placement and practical examinations. Most of the placement assessments were too mean, and the supervisors always gave me too much pressure and stressful emotion. The well-being is extremely concern in medical school and their professions since medical students and residency have higher rates of mental illness, chemical dependency, and suicide than other professions (Mosley et al.,1994).

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I understand that human has both negative and positive emotions. Many negative emotions are often associated with the high occurrence of burnout in medical training (Ruokamo, H., & Keskitalo, T., 2017). Besides, positive emotions (such as pride, excitement, gratitude, and happiness) also accompany with more extensive cognitive focus and lead to more critical experiences (Ruokamo et al., 2017). What is more, an integrated approach should be developed about engagement on student well-being and then support their learning and educational experiences, eventually, their well-being. Also, the positive emotion encourages people to concentrate on general learning occasion, in this way, improving the exchanging information and abilities to new circumstances (Ruokamo et al., 2017). It also facilitates subjective adaptability and receptiveness to data, in this way upgrading the exchange of clinical abilities and information.

On the other hand, the negative emotion encourages individuals to focus on general learning event, along these lines improving the capacities to new conditions and facilitates emotional versatility and openness to information, along these lines updating the clinical capacities and data (Ruokamo et al., 2017). I think that simulation-based teaching and learning can involve different feelings and emotions that affect how students learn and transfer their knowledge and skills to new settings. In a simulation-based learning environment, scenarios and materials are usually constructed to elicit particular emotions because real-life situations in a healthcare environment might be challenging, stressful, or cause cognitive overloading.

In this study, there is a correlation between student engagement and well-being in healthcare education. Besides, there should have a reliable and scientific measurement about position emotion because the dependency of self-reports is too subjective. The theoretical framework of engagement (which is used in general school) and well-being that is divided into the elements of personal, academic, intellectual, social, and professional engagement (Pittaway, S. M., 2012). In this study, I learned the engagement is about healthcare students’ emotional, behavioral, and cognitive involvement in simulation-based learning, as well as their expectations of, and experiences with, simulation-based learning processes (Kangas, Hyvönen, Randolph, & Ruokamo, 2017).

From this lesson, I have learned the knowledge about the relationship between subjective well-being and simulation teaching method in health care education. It is so impressive to me because the lecture let me think more applications of simulation to another education field, not only in general education. Moreover, during the class discussion, some students talked about the method of collecting data. Thus, in this case, the research use factor analysis, reliability test, paired sample t‐test, and multiple linear regression analysis for data analysis. I think I will learn more deeply next semester subject of qualitative analysis course.

Topic: Technostress and Generation Y in the mediatized working life

Mediatization thinks about the transaction between media, culture, and society. Additionally, it clarifies how social orders, societies, and individuals become impacted and molded by media and advancements and how advances and media may have authority over individuals, their conduct and considerations (Lunt and Livingstone, 2016). There are two forms of mediatization. Direct (strong) mediatization means non-mediated activities to become mediated (e.g., from home banking to online banking) (Hjarvard. S, 2008). Formerly non-mediated activity converts to a mediated form and its activity is performed through interaction with a medium, e.g., games, schoolbooks. The second one is indirect (weak) mediatization that mediagenic symbols or mechanisms increasingly influence an activity, for instance, a wedding, children’s birthday party, fashion (Ampuja et al. 2014).

In our working life, we have many stresses, such as the conflict between working and home, invasion of privacy, work overload, role ambiguity, and job insecurity. Work overload and role ambiguity are two main stressors, whereas intrusive technology characteristics are found to be the dominant predictors of stressors (Ayyagari et al. 2011). Therefore, according to the stressors mentioned above, there are several consequences for continuous usage of mobile technology. First, we never turn off the telephone and ordinarily nighttime arousals associate with social stages. It additionally cautions the intuition to bring in private places (films, libraries, and so on.). Mediatization controls the email outside of any relevant connection to the issue at hand and the working hours (after waking, in bed, at the table, on vacation, and so on.) to make us not separate the unique situations and keep on dealing with the data load (Ayyagari et al. 2011). Generation Y was first mentioned in the marketing magazine Ad Age in 1993. It consists of young people born between 1980 and 1999. Its synonymous terms include the Net Generation and Digital Natives Generation. Letter Y represents Why. There are some discussions about how to deal with blurring boundaries between work and leisure and how to integrate a responsible use of digital media into the corporate culture. First, by improving the perceptions of usefulness and reliability, the workload could be reduced (Ayyagari et al. 2011).

Moreover, companies should develop new policies to encourage staff to do real work without interruptions during the working period. Some specific policies or arrangements let employees not abuse the constant connectivity provided by technologies. They also should promote individuals with work-home boundaries as role models (Ayyagari et al. 2011).

In this lecture, I learned more about the different opinions of using mobile technologies in their working life through the discussion in the class. Some students feel the mobile technologies would improve the workflow even it occupied their time after working hours. However, for other students and me, we all tend to close all the apps in the smartphone and stopped all working procedures after working hours because we have our family time and social activities and do not want to sacrifice our time after the office hours. I also consider some ideas in the future. It includes how these influence stress measures (both subjective and objective) and study whether perceptions or physiological responses influence usage behavior stronger. Besides, IT use is viewed as positive pressure and discovers when and why stress brought about by utilizing IT is companion or adversary to clients.

Topics: Teachers’ Engagement and Students’ Satisfaction with the Playful Learning Environment

The playful learning environment is the learning activities embedded with playful engagement and exploration and by using different tools and technologies in learning (Kangas, M., Siklander, P., Randolph, J., & Ruokamo, H., 2017). This approach has positive influences on students’ learning and satisfaction. Moreover, the learning should be advanced with play, amusements, and innovative affordances. In this lesson, I learned how to connect curriculum-based training with imagination, coordinated effort, and physical exercises (Nousiainen, T., Kangas, M., Rikala, J., & Vesisenaho, M., 2018). This training can also provide new areas for learning past the homeroom and other indoor spots. On the other hand, satisfaction is the joy of fulfillment that learning activities and the experiential outcomes which are promoted by learning motivation. Furthermore, teacher engagement should be connected to the teacher’s professional development, aptitude, and collaboration with the students (Nousiainen et al., 2018).

In this study, I learned the results from three dimensions: teacher engagement and teacher’s pedagogical engagement. First, distinctive styles of instructor engagement should be in the least and the most noteworthy fulfillment in the classroom. The differences in engagement are related conspicuously to pedagogical and emotional variables. Besides, engagement grew progressively, and at the finish of the period, the proof of engagement was generally observable.

I agree that the teacher should be flexible to reclassify the objectives amid the teaching procedure and also implement the possibility of cooperation and imaginatively sorted out the gathering work. They also have high motivation to new pedagogical and academic difficulties and can express positive emotions; happiness and fulfillment (Kangas et al., 2017). Otherwise, the negative feelings of the teacher would lower their emotional engagement and inspiration, and they only saw challenges for the most part as issues and negative signs. Moreover, they felt progressively over-burden and focused and worried about learning results. Finally, they needed additional assistance and generated negative emotions; disappointment, and vulnerability (Kangas et al., 2017).

On the whole, the learning condition’s achievement regarding understudy fulfillment, at last, relies upon the teacher’s engagement and their pedagogical choices. They must have vision and ability to put resources into a specific method for instructing and teaching; they must comprehend an academic model. Teachers had opportunities to make their own decision to improvise and should be a standard in building up the school culture, and for advancing students’ learning and necessary skills. The results can be utilized to teachers in their day by day practices and as an instructor training program.

Topics: Older people’s internet (non)use and digital competences

There are 48% of the total populace was not utilizing the Internet in 2017, with critical contrasts between various locales (ITU, 2017) Internet non-use (Rasi, 2018) is associated with instruction, pay, business, class, inability, and racial and ethnic foundation, and frequently occurs at the crossing points of these components. Also, the territories wherein individuals live, with the end goal that rural zones have more non-users than urban regions. These days, there are altogether more non-users among individuals 65+ non-user’s qualities. Finland is well in transit towards digitalization of wellbeing and social consideration administrations, and its rationale is protecting equivalent chances, having the option to live and oversee at home as far as might be feasible.

Moreover, digitalization is needed for digital skills (European Commission, 2010; Ferrari, 2013). ICTs considered a chance to improve older individuals’ living conditions and wellbeing, to reinforce their social network and to encourage their regular day to day existences (Kilpeläinen and Seppänen, 2014). Research about precedent was shown that the advanced digital skills and competencies of older individuals living in country towns in Finnish Lapland individuals more than 65 years old in Finland utilize the Internet less often, in a less versatile manner and for most various purposes (Rasi et al. 2016). Furthermore, older individuals’ non-use or low utilization of the Internet has raised worries about their potential dangers for being rejected from services identified with education, well-being, health, social security, welfare, communication, and participation in the digitalized society.

On the other hand, I seldom found the internet non-users in Hong Kong because even older people also have their smartphone to communicate with others. In this lecture, I recognize some people, for example in Africa and some Asian countries, they really do not have any internet usage in their life, just like a stone-age people and some classmate from African countries admitted they needed to collect data for their thesis through proxy method and even go to their countries directly. It was so surprising to hear about this data collection method.

In this study, I learned the characteristics of those internet non-users are shown as below: They perceive no need or advantage and lack the intrigue or inspiration. Moreover, they have a negative demeanor toward the Internet consider themselves excessively old and also have cliché considering (Rasi, P., 2018). Furthermore, they are scared of a computer language to have security and wellbeing concerns. Sometimes, they lack the time, or adequate data and technical support and think it is costly (Rasi, P., 2018). They think they have physical constraints, practically no experience, and unacceptable UIs or missing network associations. Finally, they possible have deficient abilities, low PC self-viability, and PC uneasiness. On the other hand, many individuals who had utilized the Internet before, however, ceased for different reasons: Internet dropout, Internet ex-client, or Internet discontinue (Rasi, P., 2018). They are also indicated as Internet non-utilize a conscious choice not coming about because of financial reasons and want-not and individuals who oppose, reject, or decline to utilize the Internet (effectively or inactively) (Rasi, P., 2018).

In this study, I learned five barriers for internet non-users, such as physical constraints (being able to), lack of perceived needs and advantages of utilization (wanting to),lack of pertinence to regular living and way of life (wanting to), lack of adequate aptitudes, information, and backing (knowing how to), and negative feelings (feeling) at the Internet (Rasi, P., & Kilpeläinen, A., 2015). Therefore, internet non-users should utilize one of the necessary digital skills for lifelong learning and cooperation in progressively digitalized social orders. Moreover, they should comprehend the significance of the Internet and digital competency from the respondent’s perspective to recognize the current course of the respondent. Also, digital competences were dispersed skills of older couples living together, families with three ages groups, and informal networks of residents (Rasi et al., 2015).

Respondents experienced pressure from society to utilize the Internet. The having to methodology was discussed both in positive and negative ways. I suggest they should consent the social pressures and try to utilize the Internet, subsequently demonstrating media agency that involves opposing and veering off from customary perspectives of thinking and acting.

Topics: Enhancing well-being through YouTube videos: Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR)

In this lecture, the lecturer introduced a phenomenon that I am interested in it. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is called specific stimuli to trigger unwinding and pleasurable shivering vibes that are at first limited to the head and neck locale and may spread to various parts of the body (Fredborg, B., Clark, J., & Smith, S. D., 2017). These triggers are not the same as individual to individual and might be auditory, visual, tactile, and additionally olfactory. The popular ASMR varies media (audiovisual) triggers murmuring, soft talking, tapping, scratching, crinkling, moderate, voluntary hand movements, watching redundant tasks being finished, and close to personal consideration. ASMR sensations inclination is independent and autonomous, in that people cannot control over starting it, and sensory, in that it is a physical reaction that happens along the body’s meridian or focus (Barratt, E. L., & Davis, N. J., 2015). I fully support the research directions, including looking at the functional connectivity of an all-encompassing resting state network and decide if the brains of various individuals with ASMR contrast from those of matched control members. Moreover, the research also can be used at the physiological parameters underlying the psychological state of ASMR and examining whether ASMR may give physiological, just as psychological, medical benefits.

In this study, I recognize the individual differences in functional neural connectivity across individuals who do and do not experience ASMR (Lochte, B. C., Guillory, S. A., Richard, C. A., & Kelley, W. M., 2018). Furthermore, some peoples– including a significant number of ASMR members in our examination – use ASMR videos on the best way to relax just as to adapt to stress and depression (Poerio, G., 2016). Besides, ASMR stretched out further self-reported sentiments to physiological measures, such as decreased pulse rate and elevated skin conductance level while viewing ASMR recordings (Poerio, G. L., Blakey, E., Hostler, T. J., & Veltri, T., 2018). Moreover, I am quite sure the research may not be a critical representation of the general ASMR populace, particularly the individuals who do not share their experiences on the web. The desired impact ASMR members experienced changes in emotion and physiology since they expected to when a non-ASMR member had no such desires.

In the next semester, I think I am most likely to do this research and have the following idea. First, I could try to examine the potential therapeutic use of ASMR. Second, I can investigate the connection between singular contrasts in the ASMR phenomenology to the activity of various resting-state networks and also differentiate the causal systems of ASMR, and how the fundamental neural activity may add to ASMR experiences (Lochte et al., 2018). Third, I can explore the social part of ASMR recordings is fundamental for experiencing ASMR and examine whether ASMR is identified with the release of neuropeptides identified with social grooming and contact examining the conceivable advantage of ASMR videos for soothing loneliness would be a commendable line of the request (Lochte et al., 2018).

On the whole, ASMR would apply with self-reported brief decreases in chronic pain, and upgrades in temperament. It can also try to associate with mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) treatment and yoga and also apply for its at-home stress management programs (Fredborg, B. K., Clark, J. M., & Smith, S. D., 2018).

Topics: Using ICT helping learners’ interest and achievement in math learning

To begin with, the associations between informal and formal knowledge in the game-based learning process could encourage students to build up their understandings about the game to include theoretical understandings of the game model and its fundamental principles (Barzilai, S., & Blau, I., 2014). Besides, I think these associations can speak to issues in a more significant amount of reflection and also increase the transference of knowledge and abilities obtained from playing the games and reach out past the limits of the game additional learning settings, including formal ones. Moreover, it may help teachers who wish to incorporate games in their pedagogy genuinely and meaningfully.

In the lesson, there is introduced a new concept called scaffolding. It can coordinate formal knowledge inside the game and by giving external support to help students to interface between the knowledge learned in the game and disciplinary information (Barzilai et al., 2014). In PC based learning, the idea of scaffolding alludes to software-based apparatuses that help students in taking part in unpredictable and challenging errands.

In the game-based learning process, there are two aspects I can recognize: flow and enjoyment. Both of them can increase students’ motivation to connect with the learning task and cause students to participate in learning exercises deliberately and to rehash these activities again (Barzilai et al., 2014). Moreover, they can lead students to assign regarding the learning task and along these lines improve learning and resulting review and encourage students to continue adapting, even in the face of troubles, and hence to broaden learning time.

In this study, I can learn four factors to trigger students’ interest in the digital learning environment. The teacher can give scaffolding support to correct answer feedback, specific feedback, and understood the criticism and feedback (Sun, L. P., Siklander, P., & Ruokamo, H., 2018). Moreover, the guidance and supervision could do errands all the more energizing and adequate, just as activate learners’ interest. The excellent learning environment can provide the affordance for collaboration, interaction, learning space, and learning style (Sun et al., 2018). Furthermore, teachers can combine the mixed content individual and collaborative exercises upheld by versatile and PC based technologies. On the other hand, IT experts can help the learning process by easing the use of technology, increase self-efficacy, and enjoyment (Sun et al., 2018).

During the class activity, we need to find an online game of mathematics from the internet. For me, I found a game related to numerical sequence order, and I introduced and demonstrated how it worked, and we found the game was fun, but it lacked the support/scaffolding during the upper level/ difficult level situations. That is, the teacher must accompany this game during the student using this game as learning tools, and the students cannot make use of them as self-directed learning. Therefore, for my research in the future, I need to find a full support version, not a free version to experiment.

In conclusion, teachers’ scaffolding exercises amid interactivity expanded learners’ scientific learning and math aptitudes and also assumed a unique role to help and shift learners’ situational interest to singular interest inside a computerized game-based learning condition. Moreover, students expected to learn and to play to engage at the same time. It delineated how their situational interest may form into individual interest while learning with games.

Summary (At the end of course)

The more significant part of the articles as referenced above and their examination was subjective, because of meeting or survey information, or blended technique thinks about consolidating subjective and quantitative strategies. Be that as it may, in the ASMR articles, they have utilized the other target strategy (e.g., fMRI and other logical strategies) to make up for the emotional self-reported justification (Lochte et al., 2018). Also, aside from the address of Older individuals’ web (non)use and advanced abilities, most take part of the investigations were primary comprehensive education (aged 7 to 15), youth at senior secondary schools and vocational institutes (aged 15 to 18), students at institutes of higher education (aged 18 and over) as well as teachers and parents. Along these lines, I would investigate the media effect on adult and older adults increasingly.

From my perspective, when I consider media education as a teaching-studying-learning process (such as pedagogical ICT and simulation of health education), it is interconnected with educational sciences. However, if I intend to research from the perspective of media culture, media, and psychosocial wellbeing, the research traditions and perspectives are very different. As for psychosocial wellbeing, the research traditions are divided into three categories, behavioristic, cognitive, and sociocultural tradition.

Reference

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