Revealing Reasons Of Childhood-onset Schizophrenia

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Many individuals like to escape reality by creating their imaginary world. However, those individuals can distinguish between reality and illusion and can function normally in everyday life. Unlike patients with schizophrenia, which is a type of brain disorder that disturbs the individual daily life by being trapped in an illusion. Patients with this disorder live in a world of hallucinations, which can be very dangerous to the patients, and the people around them. People around the world identified schizophrenia as an individual with many personalities, or as a “split mind”, which is understandable since this is what the word schizophrenia means. However, it is far more complicated than this common belief. Patients with this disorder indeed have problems with identity, but not as the common belief that they struggle with multiple personalities. There are five types of schizophrenia, and all types of schizophrenia affect the reality of their patients, some of which are very severe it can be labeled as an emergency. However, I will be focusing on one important type, which is childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). COS is schizophrenia that happens early in life. unlike adults, it is very dangerous with children because it cannot be easily confirmed. It cannot be easily identified if the child is diagnosed with this disorder, or if they just have an overactive imagination. My research question will explain how childhood-onset schizophrenia affects the growth of children.

Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) can affect many areas of the brain, and one of these areas is working memory (WM). Working memory is the brain’s capability to maintain the received information. COS is associated with lowering the performance of the WM in young children, Frances. F et al (2018). In a study that was conducted of 32 adult patients with COS, 30 nonpsychotic siblings with COS, and the controlled group that was 39 healthy participants. As for the sex, it was matched between the group, but the age was different between the adult patients with COS (21 years) and the siblings (19 years). According to Frances. F et al (2018), the study was performed with n-back WM tests, which is a task that maintains many performances that are used in neuroimaging. The purpose of the backtest is to activate the brain in testing the patients. The patients were presented with different images for about 1.5 seconds to see if their memory is strong when functioning. Also, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was associated with the tests. According to Hannah Devlin (2018), fMRI is a method that is used to see the brain’s activation. It works by discovering the change that happens when more oxygen and blood is flowing in the brain area. These changes are because the brain’s increasing activation is requiring more blood to flow to the brain, and more oxygen is needed. The results of this study indeed indicated that patients with COS scored shockingly lower when it comes to the other groups. According to Frances. F et al (2018), Out of the 32 patients (42%) scored very poor on these tests and could not even finish the second round of the test due to their inability to remember most of the images. As for the adult patients, and their scores were higher than the patients with COS. This research confirmed that COS, especially at a younger age, can negatively affect the preform of WM deficits. The research suggests that COS has a heavy impact on the dysfunction of the WM in young patients. Since, when presented with different images of locations, or patterns, the patients with COS were unable to remember the images most of the time. Some which, could not even participate in the study to their inability to remember any of the presented images.

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The performance of patients with COS can differ when it comes to gender differences in young children. According to Anna. E et al (2016), a research study was conducted on 133 patients with COS, and the tests Including PDD previse development disorder, including autism, Rett syndromes, and childhood disintegrative disorder. ADHD, which is attention deficits hyperactivity disorder among female and male patients. IQ testing, and younger age of onset schizophrenia. The results of the research were significant between gender. For example, the result of the IQ among the patients was that the men had a higher verbal IQ score than the female 83% for males and 75.58% for females. Also, the results showed that men have a higher chance of getting ADAD, which was (43.86% for males, and 21.43% for females). The PDD results showed that men had a higher rate of 28.17% for male and 6.90% for the female. Finally, men had a higher chance of younger age onset schizophrenia than females (Anna. E 2016). The results of this study have confirmed that gender is very important when it comes to the effect of COS. Men have a higher chance when it comes to getting ADAD, and PDD, and early onset, than females, Anna E. et al (2016). These results of the research have confirmed my research question that COS can affect the growth of the patients, due to the different health problems that the disorder can have on the patients at a young age. That can be developed in the future or can cause other symptoms that will danger the patient’s life.

The quality of life (QOL) for patients of COS is significantly different from normal people. QOF is simply the concept of a fulfilling life that each and everyone is trying to reach, Kam Kumar Solanki (2008). The main purpose of this research study was to find out the QOF of patients with COS. The method of this research was to use the positive and negative syndrome scale. The scale’s main purpose is to measure the symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. The study was conducted with fifty patients that were diagnosed with COS, most of the patient were 36.43 years most of whom are married. The study confirmed that the QOL of the patients was very low. For example, the results were significant when it comes to the employment of the patients. Only 29% were unemployed, and the rest 75-85 were not employed. As for the result of the education there 30% of the patients with no background education. Also, the results of the social relationships were shockingly negative on the scale. Based on the research patients with COS have a harder time acquiring the social skills to maintain social relationships. The research also confirmed that the education of the patients is very low on the scale. Implying that students with COS have a harder time adjusting to school, or even maintaining a proper average. The results have confirmed my research question because at a young age the patients can have the necessary skills to acquire an education, which can have negative consequences when it comes to future life. As the patients struggle with social and educational skills at a young age, it can have the same effects when in adult life.

The research was to study and assess the neuropsychological function of patients with COS. The method that was used for the study was The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), which is a test that is used to test the functioning of the patient’s abilities, like cognitive and behavioral functioning. The study also used the SPECT scale, which is A single-photon emission computerized tomography that captures the image of internal organs, like the brain, Savita Malhotra, (2006). The test was conducted with fourteen patients with COS before the age of fourteen. The results of this study were amazing, 64% of the 14 patients had issues with the left temporal of the brain, which is associated with mental processing like speech. The results of the study show that COS can have an impact on the brain’s important areas, like speech, memory, and even movement. The results confirmed my research question because patients with this disorder have a major problem in their left temporal. Which can affect the mental growth of patients at a young age.

COS has many issues that brigs o the patients, However, the emotional problem are significant. The fifth research is about studying the emotional problems, and the impact that COS can have on children and adults. The method that was used in the study was mainly on the Polygenic risk score (PRS), which is a new tool that was invented to find the genetic risk that a patient can potentially have. The age group of children was four to six years old, and for the adultness, it was twelve to seventeen years old. The research was conducted on many Questionnaires and interviews with both groups. Also, there were bullying and friendship interview schedule for both groups. The results of the study were expected, 95% of children with COS had many emotional problems.

Based on the research that was done regarding childhood-onset schizophrenia, it is evident that this disorder has a significant impact on a child’s growth period. This disorder can hurt an infant’s brain due to the struggle they will have with COS. For example, COS can impact many parts of the brain, like speech, movement, and even memory. Unlike adults, children will have a harder time adjusting to the many problem COS bringing, like a hallucination, illusion, memory problems, and even cognitive problems. Early childhood experience is very important to children because it shapes the character of each individual. However, patients with COS will have a harder time adjusting to their environment whether in school, or at home, and those experiences will have an impact on the child’s future. Not many studies were conducted regarding childhood-onset schizophrenia, or not even enough was conducted to understand the disorder better. Additionally, a study could be conducted to help reduce the cognitive problem that the child will have due to the disorder. 


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