Special Automation System Or Library
According to Collins English Dictionary (2020), automation word is defined as the technique, method, or system of operating or controlling a process by highly automatic means, as by electronic devices, reducing human intervention to a minimum. With the introduction of computers and information and communication technology tools, libraries are on the threshold of automation which will enhance standard services. It is with this in mind that an increased emphasis has been placed on comprehensive and accurate information to ensure quality services are available. When computer and information technology are used in library operations, such as for acquisition, cataloging, circulation, and serial control, it is considered an automated library (Ahmad and Iqbal, 2009). Library automation is rapidly becoming an essential tool in support of effective customer services, stock management, and management of services offered by libraries (Rai and Kumar, 2011).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF UNIVERSITY ISLAMIC MALAYSIA (USIM) AND ITS LIBRARY
Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) is an emerging Islamic university that is fully owned and funded by the Malaysian Government. Being the 12th Public Institution of Higher learning, it aims to spearhead knowledge and be the global reference center for Islamic Science. At USIM, they approach two aspects which are the physical and the spiritual aspects. It is widely practiced throughout the university including administration and management levels and not only the academic programs offered to their students. Against this backdrop, USIM embraces a holistic approach towards the delivery of knowledge, which unites relational sciences (Naqli knowledge) and the rational sciences (Aqli knowledge). Apart from the other Islamic universities at worldwide, USIM offers a unique model to Islamic Higher Education. The integration of religious sciences together with the social and physical sciences in all its programs provides a comprehensive understanding of current global problems and offers a fresh alternative in solving them.
Figure 1 USIM Library
Previously, USIM’s library is known as the Islamic University Malaysia Library (KUIM) and the university was established in early 2000 in July and is located on the IPB Tower. In July 2001, it was moved to level 14 near the Pandan Tower which is now USIM’s second campus. Then, the library was relocated to a permanent campus in Bandar Baru Nilai in July 2005 and is now operating as the main library. The Pandan Indah Library is maintained as a branch of the main library and supports the learning and research programs of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the Faculty of Dentistry.
The vision of the library is to be the world’s leading Islamic information and information center while the mission of the library is to collect, process, and disseminate up-to-date information for teaching, research, and learning purposes as the site for the establishment of the Islamic Digital Library. There are four objectives for this library which are:-
- Provides Collection of reference material and additional reading material
- As an international and worldwide Islamic reference center
- Collects processing and disseminating information
- As the site of the Islamic digital library
1.2 LIBRARY COLLECTION
USIM Library has provided many types of collection for their users such as the open collection, special collection, individual collection, multimedia collection, and many more. Among all of the collections, only the open collection and multimedia collection can be borrowed according to user eligibility since an open collection of books covers a wide range of subjects and fields while multimedia collection covers a wide selection of materials are offered in a variety of formats, such as CD-ROMs, DVDs, tapes, kits, disks, and more. Other than these two collections, all of the other collections cannot be borrowed and can only be referred to in the library. For example, is the Malaysiana collection, it covers a wide range of topics about Malaysia and the other example is the archives collection where the collection contains books, newspaper clippings, and other materials of aesthetic value to the university
1.3 LIBRARY SERVICES
1.3.1 INTERLIBRARY LOAN & DOCUMENT SUPPLY SERVICES
At USIM Library, they provide interlibrary loan & document supply services to help their users to access the materials that are not available within their library collections. This service is operated by the Reference Unit, where they will identify the availability of materials needed from other libraries. The user who wants to use this service needs to fill the form before they can request the collection that they wanted from the other library.
1.3.2 CIRCULATION COUNTERS
Figure 3 Circulation Counters
Circulation counters are one of the key functions at USIM Library and the function of the counter is to meet the daily requirements of the library’s activities. For example, if the user cannot return back the books that they have borrowed, they can just go to the circulation counters and ask for the help of the librarians there. They also can pay for the fine payments if they did not return back the books within the time given to them. The librarian at USIM Library also manages the booking of Service Rooms at these circulation counters.
1.3.3 PATRON ADVISORY DESK
Figure 4 Patron Advisory Desk
Patron Advisory Desk or more well-known as the Reference Desk at USIM Library offers infinite assistance of information advice and delivery purposely to meet the user’s needs and requirements. The user at the USIM Library will be guided by the librarian on a daily basis according to library operation hours. The reference librarian will also help users to find the materials and information they need because it is important to lead the user to use the library in a correct manner.
1.3.4 USER EDUCATION PROGRAMME
USIM Library provides a multi-faceted user education program for university members including students, academicians, and administration staff. This service aims to expose the users to develop information skills in making full use of the USIM Library resources, services and facilities provided. Some of the content or class offerings such as Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC), all databases are subscribed by the library, e-Imtiyaz – library intellectual repository, research and thesis writing, and any topics related to information services or user requests. All of the users need to fill the form first before they can start the program and this form can be found on the library website.
2.0 LIBRARY AUTOMATION DEVELOPMENT
The history of USIM Library automation began in 2001 when a new acquisition system was developed in collaboration with the USIM Information Technology Center. The new system was aimed to enhance acquisition activities to become more efficient and effective and USIM Library chose to use KOHA as their library system. KOHA allows for data entry as per their needs and does not have restrictions on a number of records. KOHA allows the import of MARC data from sources such as OCLC, LOC, and freely available web-based resources. This makes it easier for the USIM library because, at the same time, the library is applying Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), a cataloging system, to describe the materials. Indirectly, the system facilitated library staff in the cataloging process since it managed to store data in MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue) format. Each record that has been save in MARC is represented in a framework and since KOHA comes with some predefined frameworks that can be edited or deleted, librarians at USIM Library have created their own frameworks for content specific to their libraries. The MARC also records facilitated the process of data transfer when the library implementing the automation system.
3.0 LIBRARY SYSTEM USED BY USIM LIBRARY
An integrated library system is an enterprise-level software package that manages, integrates, and centralizes multiple core library functions and services. Integrated library systems are designed to help libraries with three primary duties: increase efficiency, provide access to a library’s collection and provide access to external resources (Kochtanek and Matthews, 2002). ILSs can be considered to be the central nervous system of library automation and typically include several discrete but inter-related modules: Acquisitions for ordering materials, cataloging for generating and managing MARC records, circulation for the reservation, and OPAC that which users will utilize to search the catalog. The library system that has been used by the University of Islamic Malaysia since 2000 is KOHA.
KOHA is a Full Feature ILS and it provides a Web-based Interface. It supports Linux, UNIX, Windows, and Mac OS Operation System. KOHA support MARC21 and UNIMARC bibliographic framework and it is easy to download MARC record with Z39.50 to achieve standardization in cataloging. KOHA Support all Modules for circulation, cataloging acquisition, Serials, Reserves, Patron management and etc. It provides a Clear Search interface for all users and it also can print I-card of Patrons & Library standards-compliant. It ensures the transaction load of any library and it is free no vendor lock for installing it.
3.1 KOHA MODULES USED BY THE LIBRARY
The acquisition is the first function of the USIM Library. The acquisition is the process of selecting and acquiring selected materials for library and information centers in all formats including digital items and maintaining the necessary records related to acquisitions. First, the selections of materials are done according to the collection development policy of the library. It involves pre-order bibliographic searching of the library catalog to avoid duplication of materials. Then the selected materials are acquired by ordering them for purchase, exchange, or gift. This is followed by receiving the materials, checking their quality, processing invoices, making payments to vendors or individuals, and maintaining the necessary records related to acquisitions.
Circulation at USIM Library is functioning to lending library materials (books, serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, etc.) to the users of the library. Circulation includes checking out library materials to library users, renewing the borrowed items, reserving checked out items for the patron, checking in materials returned, checking the materials for damage at the time of return, if found damaged then giving that to responsible staff for repair and when a repair is not possible then a replacement, renewal of materials, receiving payment of fines for damaged and overdue materials and payment for subscription to the library and other charges, maintaining order in the stacks by re-shelving the library materials by call number given by classification systems, such as Library of Congress Classification (LCC) or Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system.
The catalog administration in KOHA contains MARC bibliographic frameworks and this allows the librarian at USIM Library to adding or edit the classification sources, classification filing rules, and record matching. KOHA also supports all major standards and MARC flavors so it allows the librarian of USIM Library to use copy cataloging and Z39.50. Copy cataloging is the process of editing a pre-existing bibliographic record instead of creating a completely new record from scratch. This is a flexible and powerful cataloging tool as standard and can help the librarian to save their time from doing the original cataloging. The librarian also can modify the records in KOHA by editing Biblio from the search results on the cataloging page.
3.1.4 OPEN PUBLIC ACCESS CATALOGUE