Stonehenge: Events Of Period When It Was Constructed

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One of the most iconic things about the 25th century BC, was Stonehenge. While archeologists believe the construction started anywhere from 3500 to 3100 BC, they believe the construction of the structure was mostly complete around 2500 BC. The exact purpose of Stonehenge is still unknown today, but suggests several theories such as an ancient burial ground, all the way to it being a tool used by ancient astronomers to track the position of the sun to use it as a solar calendar. As well as a ceremonial holding ground where high ranking officials at the time performed rituals that would honor the dead.

2500 BC is also the time where the second Helladic period is thought to have started. During this period metalworking became more common, bronze started to become more and more common as well in some places. This metal was used for the improvement of tools and weapons of the time due to it being harder and more resilient to wear and tear usage. Oxen driven plows were also seen for the first time during this period, which improved agricultural performance. Longhouse building designs were introduced to architecture at the time. Longhouses were literally just long houses, which in some cases spanned up to 300 feet in length.

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Another major milestone in the 2500BC time period, was that the Pyramid of Khafre was built, it is the second largest of the 3 major “Pyramids of Giza.” This pyramid was built for the 4th king of egypt during the 4th dynasty. It is unknown if he was actually buried in the pyramid or not. Another major monument built for Khafre was the Great sphinx. Hieroglyphic texts in the Sphinx suggests Khafre’s father, Pharaoh Khufu built the Great Pyramid. Researchers to this day don’t know what Egyptians at the time called the Sphinx, since that term is actually Greek, and didn’t exist until almost 2000 years after the monument was constructed. Famously, the nose on the sphinx is missing, which some stories claim it was Napoleon’s Army that shot the nose off with a cannon, others suggest that it was Sufi Muslims in protest of idolatry.

During the 24th century BC, one of the first major meteor / asteroid impacts is recorded. In 2350, an asteroid is believed to have exploded over southern Iraq, with one major piece breaking off and hitting now what is Umm al Binni Lake in southern Iraq. This impact is believed to be the root cause of wildfires and flooding.

In ancient Egypt during this time evidence points that beekeeping in that area began around this time period. Honey was used by all social classes in Egypt at this time, suggesting that bees were domesticated and that production of honey and other bee related products were massed produced. Honey and beeswax were believed to be used for religious purposes, but also for regular consumption. Honey was sometimes used for embalming bodies before they were mummified. Some tombs that mummies were put in were sealed off with beeswax. Jars of honey have been found at some burials that are assumed to be offerings to that person in what Egyptians called the afterlife. Bee’s were also sacred to the Egyptians, as they believed that the soul of a man took the form of a bee.

A portion of the Early Dynastic Period in Mesopotamia took place during this time period as well. During this period, ancient civilization made some of the most significant cultural advances. Including the rise of cities, the development of writing, and early government bodies. Upper class were still considered the elite, as they would be very wealthy, and have ties to some sort of power. Items such as jewelry, bread, and woven cloth were mass produced for the upper class my the lower classes for trade. Wealth made by these upper classes from trading items made by the lower class rarely trickled down to the lower class. As wealth and power began to grow, this attracted many more people from rural areas, which in the end, began creating cities. Cities that were large enough and wealthy enough often provided protection against raiders slavers, and the elements of nature. As these cities become more and more common, the population began to rise due to this.

The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia. It lasted for a little under 200 years. When it collapsed all the major cities had no top level authority, which lead them to have separate governing bodies for all cities left over. This lead to many problems, which in the end resulted in the Akkadian Empire falling and being taken over by the Guitans. The Guitans were known for being careless and not focusing on the importance of agriculture, written records, or public safety. This carelessness brought famine to the area. Before the collapse, Akkad was the largest city in the entire world at the time.

During the 23rd century BC, the Bronze age reached its peak in most places. Around this time metals and metal work were becoming more and more common in northern Europe. In Central America at this time according to evidence, maize cultivation was introduced. In this century, many things were similar to that of the 24th century BC, cities grew, agriculture improved in some reasons, leading to higher populations throughout new regions, which in all established more areas to trade, and more things to trade.

All of these events listed from 2500-2300 BC, are just some of the defining things that paved roads for future civilizations to come. Such as agricultural improvements, the introduction to early governing bodies, and basic economic systems. As well as formations and collapses of cities and the growth of the world’s population. Just in 200 years so much had happened and so many things were invented in this short amount of time. Without the Bronze age, many things would not have been possible without it the creation of it. Without the advances of architecture and building larger buildings, cities would not be possible. Many things during this time set the path forward for civilizations to continue to grow and evolve into more advanced populations.   


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