The Intrinsic And Extrinsic Types Of Motivation
All students are known to be unique; educators can contribute to developing and increasing motivation for optimal achievement in the classroom. Achievement is a rather extensive-term thus having various meanings. However, the majority of authors relate achievement to a sense of progression amongst learners, resulting in success. With the assistance of a supportive classroom environment, fetching learning experiences, goal setting, and teacher enthusiasm, teachers can motivate students to discover pleasure in their learning. While reviewing various key pieces of research on motivation, I found there to be numerous cognitive motivation theories that can be effectively implemented within the classroom to increase the learning of children. In this review, I aim to look at the diverse effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the achievement of all children within the classroom.
It has been advocated that Intrinsic motivation refers to a certain behavior that is derived from an individual’s own self, this is underpinned through the macro Self-Determination theory, this theory explains how external influences can affect the internal drive of completing a task. It is also stated that external rewards can influence the intrinsic motivation to complete a task. This theory is further categorized by three psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Competence is defined by a perceived self-belief in one’s own ability to perform well in an activity. The most understandable way to make a student feel competent is by selecting activities that are challenging, nevertheless achievable with some assistance and effort. Another way to support competence is to generate feedback as immediately as possible, this can be presented in a few different forms: corrective, positive, or skill-specific. One example of positive reinforcement would be ‘well done’, which is derived from successful experience, therefore leaving the students with higher levels of self-esteem resulting in optimal achievement. Competence would then lead to autonomy. Autonomy is defined as freedom of choice, subsequently allowing children to choose tasks that they enjoy and have an interest in. The need for autonomy refers to the experiences that are self-endorsed for example students are autonomous when they are willing to spend time on their studies, primarily leading to greater levels of achievement due to the willingness to learn. Autonomy is strongly linked to relatedness. Relatedness can be defined as a shared experience or a way of supporting a students’ relational needs. One of the main ways of supporting a students’ needs to relate to others is to arrange activities where children with multiple different strengths can work together, this way diversity amongst students is recognized and competition between peers is also minimalized. Nevertheless, many factors can contribute to the fulfillment of these needs as they are vital to foster intrinsic motivation as learning is based on the concept that the task is carried out due to it being self-satisfying or interesting. However amongst the most important is the teachers’ style of engaging with the children, therefore, teachers face the challenge to support rather than overlooking these three basic psychological needs.
From my understanding, a common theme regarding intrinsic motivation is the development of an autonomous classroom and this is only possible when teachers set activities that provoke interest and instill a desire for learning. Retrospectively, teachers face the challenge to create a supportive learning environment rather than a controlling one, this can be seen as a pivot for intrinsic motivation as the supportive learning environment will further assist in the expansion of successful learners, where they will want to learn for pleasure as they will indulge in the activity due to it being interesting or self- satisfying. So consequently, children will be able to experience the enjoyment of learning whilst achieving outcomes within the learners’ zone of proximal development.