The Role Of Motivation In Management
Motivation is affected by the fulfillment of needs that are fundamental for prosperity and development. Which becomes physiological needs for survival, such as food, water, sleep, to preserve life organism to maintain life and provide satisfaction. Autonomy, dominance, and belonging are psychological needs that guide our actions in much the same way. The needs for achievement include strength, completion, and self-esteem. Any of these desires will become motivations, as will all of our intrinsic practices. Motivation is a domestic process, weather we define it as a drive or a need, it’s a condition that desires a change, either in the self or in an environment.
Motivation is well related to the work environment; it encourages employees to take action to achieve their goals within the company they work for. It eventually becomes the psychological factors to influence individuals the desire for money, success, recognition, job satisfaction, and teamwork. In the 1950s, three main theories were developed as the classical theories of motivation. They became the building blocks of modern speculations. As professionals and managers utilize these theories they help elucidate the concept of worker motivation. First it began with Abraham Maslow, one of the most influential psychologists, who proposed the Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Maslow’s theory suggests that humans are motivated to meet these needs for human motivation. It works by first obtaining at the lowest level of needs and then satisfying each higher level until all five needs have been satisfied.
The second theory was proposed by a behavioral scientist known as Frederick Herzberg. This theory was known as the Two-Factor Theory. This theory defined the intuition areas of employee satisfaction and motivation in the work environment. The Hygiene Factors are considered the extrinsic conditions, such as benefits, physical working conditions, job security, pay, and company policies. It determines the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the employees. The Motivators Factors are positive factors, which include either intrinsic or extrinsic. The intrinsic motivating factors incorporate growth, the meaningfulness of the work, and promotional opportunities. In addition, the extrinsic motivating factors include recognition, a sense of achievement, and responsibility. When comparing the Two-Factor Theory, the Hygiene Factor will always lead to dissatisfaction, and the motivators will provide better performance from the employees themselves.
The last classical theory was created by Douglas McGregor, which challenged the presumption of human behavior at work and labeled them as Theory X and Theory Y. These theories showed managers what motivates their employees; Theory X defines employees disliking their work and being controlled by the organization. On the contrary, with Theory, Y employees show intrinsic interest in their work, in which they seek responsibility and creativity for their organizational objectives. This theory has caused confusion for managers, in which they need to choose between the two conflicting approaches. The approaches depend on the situation and may lead to great outcomes or not be as effective as the other.
Daniel H. Pink defines the Sawyer Effect as an intrinsic motivation, in which Tom Sawyer from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer convinces his friends how a job duty can turn into joy from splashing paint on a fence. Mark Twain uses this example as a key motivation between work and play by defining it as “Work is able to obligate the body to do things but Play can make the body do anything that the body is not obligated to do”. These are drivers of motivation, which lead up to rewards, creativity, and intrinsic motivation.
I’ve observed this effect myself multiple times in my organization. There’s been a few times where I’ve felt more accomplished when I volunteered for a project, compared to when the project was assigned to me. This relates to most of the employees at my organization because many of them prefer to be told what to do to avoid any intrinsic motivators. They prefer to stay within the Motivation 2.0 survival needs to get through work. As the generation’s change and baby boomers retire, there are still a few employees who still hold incentives to succeed within their company and make their organization successful. Considering this information important, intrinsic motivators play an important role in being successful within oneself or within any organization.
Frederick Douglas discussed motivator’s factors as intrinsic and extrinsic. Both are similar but yet very different from one another, extrinsic occurs outside of the individual while intrinsic arises within. Intrinsic motivations are hidden costs of rewards, which result in better performance and satisfaction. Most employees at my organization participate in our Employee Communication Committee, in which they find the committee enjoyable and exciting. As a member of this committee, I’ve seen how effective and successful our committee can be when we have everyone there for the right reasons. This observation is very effective not only on my peers but also on myself. In addition to the job duties I have as a Sr. Office Specialist, I’m more intrinsically motivated in completing assignments I enjoy the most than the ones that are tedious and take most of my time.
Most organizations use extrinsic motivation to motivate their employees for higher performances. These motivators include a higher salary, bonus, or maybe a promotion. Normally these incentives appear to fail, the employee can complete the task needed to receive a higher salary, and as soon the goal is met, the employee will want another task to receive a higher wage. This turns into an unending cycle of employees wanting more, and lose interest in the organizations own success. I’ve personally experienced this effect and it eventually decreases my intrinsic motivation. However, I always tend to find myself back to my intrinsic motivators to keep me enjoying my job and what I do as an employee.
Based on the human psyche the fundamentals to work better in an organization are intrinsic motivation, which is more aligned with high performance. Daniel H. Pink outlines three types of intrinsic motivation, which are autonomy, mastery, and purpose. Most employees seek happiness in the autonomy of their self-esteem and are greater well-being compared to those who are extrinsically motivated. A job will be more enjoyable and interesting if the employees work harder and are committed, without the need for extrinsic motivators. Intrinsic motivation eventually fades away and leads to extrinsically motivating incentives. According to Daniel H. Pink, higher incentives lead to worse performance). High intrinsic motivations will create better coworkers; if the behavior emerges more individuals will follow this example. The use of intrinsic incentives will only last so long that most motivators will lead to old habits and start the cycle all over again.
As a future manager, my focus will be to find a balance between both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for my future employees. I wish to provide different incentives in which will drive my employees to their full advancement. Growth and knowledge should be prioritized from the individual who seeks to be successful. Success thrives individuals to want more; I know my manager did not become our manager overnight. It takes time, commitment, knowledge, and motivation to reach any aspirations. Therefore, having the ideal intrinsic fundamentals should assist me in becoming a successful manager. Google and other top companies have created different types of incentives for their employees. By doing so, it has led to new products and programs created by their employees. Utilizing all the methods mentioned before, and striving to run an organization with Motivation 3.0 doesn’t just occur from one day to another.
Motivation in organizations is very important; it will define its success and performance to meet deadlines and goals. Based on the research that has been analyzed, it’s been concluded extrinsic motivations will be the most basic fundamentals of an organization. Then it will be up to the employee to hold the intrinsic motivations within themselves. It will be the willingness of the employee to be successful and have a higher performance in a work environment.