Type Two Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

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This report will study the seriousness of type two diabetes within society and highlights the causes, symptoms and treatments available for the illness. This topic is chosen because of the huge concern of the number of people suffering from the disease. Traditionally, type 2 diabetes was thought to be a disease for old people above forty, but now it prevails among all ages. Thus, the effort will be made to address some signs and symptoms and fluctuating problems of the disease in society.

Diabetes is a condition described as an illness that stops the body process to transmit sugar into energy and allowing the sugar level to gather in the blood which increased glucose levels in the bloodstream Peate, (2009). The World Health Organisation, WHO (2006), stressed that there are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2, however, both have similar signs and symptoms related to high blood glucose levels in the bloodstream. Consequently, NHS UK, (2017), defined diabetes type one as a condition caused by damage of the beta cells of the pancreas and is therefore linked with a severe reduction in or loss of insulin-making. While on the other hand, Peate, (2009), described type two diabetes is a condition characterised by excessive glucose levels in the blood due to insulin resistance to the tissue.

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Research has shown that some factors are contributed to type 2 diabetes. According to Peate, (2009), he further discussed that family factors and country of origin can influence the acquisition of type 2 diabetes. Peate, (2009) pointed out that some main signs and symptoms of the illness include increased thirst, increased appetite and increase times of passing urine, especially at night.

The impact of diabetes on health of population according to WHO, (2015) proved that diabetes impact on people’s health because of the excess blood glucose levels that destroy the blood vessels and nerves all over the body and cause problems including, damage to the heart, nerves, the kidney and eyes as well as contributing to cardiovascular disease and stroke hence affecting the quality of life. According to The Diabetes UK (2019), diabetes is an enduring disorder that makes an individual’s blood sugar level increase. According to Wales247.co.uk (2016), 3.8 million people living with a diagnosis of diabetes in the UK, and 90% of those are affected with Type 2 diabetes.

Statistics shows by National Service Framework for diabetes, NSF (2006), confirmed that diabetes impacted to 7 million people living with cardiovascular disease in the UK. Equally, Public health England, PHE. (2016), revealed that 3.420000 people have type two diabetes in the UK, costing the NHS almost £10 billion a year. According to similar research, 10% over the 40s currently has Type 2 diabetes, signifying that the figure of persons having diabetes including Type 1, has reached 4.7 million in UK (diabetes.org.uk). similarly, the same research predicts that 5.5 million people are likely to be diabetic by 2030 diabetes.org.uk, (2016). As Well, PHE, (2016), further indicated that the death rates of heart disease caused by diabetes are five times more than for stroke and cancer.

According to DOH, (2005), the guidelines aimed at introducing better care ideas for people living with diabetes so that they can live life to the full including those at risk of developing diabetes. This appears to be successful by providing appropriate advice on health diet by reducing the amount of sugar and fat that is eaten and replacing it with fruits and vegetables. Encouraging regular physical activities, advice patients if necessary, to lose weight, and those smoking to stop since it contributes to the risk to cardiovascular and encourage to the education on how to monitor blood sugar as well as the use and administration of medicine.

The National Service Framework (2005) improved the quality of care for patients living with diabetes by reducing its impact on people’s health. It implemented patient centred care so that patients can make their own decisions regarding their health. Supported by Kozier et al (2008) that individualised care plans are being used by nurses from the time the diabetic patient is admitted up to the time the patient is referred to the specialists to help in controlling symptoms in the community.

NICE (2011), guidelines provided national guidance on promoting good health, preventing and treating ill-health for diabetic patients. They gave advice and support on routine blood check including blood for Haemoglobin so that nurses can analyse the general picture of the average level of blood sugar in the blood for a period. The above strategies have been achieved through nurses using models of approach to health promotion.

It is believed that Health promotion is a method of allowing people to increase control over their health WHO, (2018). According to Nicol, (2015), nurses looking after the diabetes patients should deliver health promotion using a conceptualization model of health change focussing on improving patient’s health on whatever the stage of their disease progression.


In conclusion, the review has shown that diabetes is a big concern in the NHS and worldwide. The second major concern is the cost of treating diabetes and its chronic nature. All the studies have persuasively recommended that group education as a real way of controlling the illness among the sufferers. However, education programs should be carefully planned while taking into consideration cultural diversity, gender, as well as the education status of the patients to effectively meet their needs. As most research have highlighted that type two diabetes as affecting the low socio-economic classes then the need to address the problem at grass root level and addressing equalities. Healthcare professionals in the primary healthcare system should continuously be trained on how to engage with patients to enable them to take control of their health condition. Diet, nutrition and exercise educational programs can also be utilized to help patients to take control with the help of their friends and families. Self-management is the most promising method of controlling type two diabetes among adults. This review has found out that diabetes educational programs make self-management cost-effective if patients are followed up and provided with the necessary resources. 


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