Universal Investigation Of Influenza

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Influenza, commonly known as the flu, which is a worldwide spreading disease caused by the influenza virus. And the symptoms can start quite suddenly in one to two days after infection. (Jefferson et al., 2011) Usually the initial symptoms are chills and body pain, but it is also common in the early stages of infection. Influenza has a high incidence rate, which is likely to cause an outbreak or a pandemic. (Carrat et al., 2008) It is mainly spread by droplets containing viruses, and contact between people or contact with contaminated items can also be transmitted. Typical clinical features are acute high fever, significant fatigue, and sore muscles, while upper respiratory catarrh, such as nasal congestion, salivation, and sneezing, are relatively mild.(Weber and Stilianakis, 2008) High in autumn and winter. The disease is self-limiting, but it is easy to cause serious complications such as pneumonia in infants, the elderly, and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. (Song et al., 2018)

Infection mode

The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory tract. Influenza would break out and develop rapidly. Due to the variation of viral antigens, a pandemic has occurred in the past few years, and the annual autumn and winter seasons are high seasons. Patients and patients with latent infection are contagious during the incubation period, and the infection is the strongest within three days of the disease. (Liu et al., 2019)

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The most common form of flu is through droplets. The virus enters the air through coughing, coughing, sneezing, etc., and when people inhale them, they cause disease. In addition, it can be indirectly spread by hands and living utensils contaminated by viruses. The population is generally susceptible to influenza viruses. After infection, immunity to the same type of virus can be obtained, but the duration is not long.  (Gu et al., 2017)

Influenza can be seen in typical flu symptoms, as well as mild flu, pneumonia-type flu, etc.,(Garcia-Sanchez et al., 2017) and there are certain complications, such as secondary bacterial infection, toxic shock, toxic myocarditis. (Weber and Stilianakis, 2008)

The main clinical manifestations are high fever, fatigue, headache, systemic muscle joint pain and other symptoms of poisoning, as well as mild respiratory symptoms such as cough, cough, sore throat. Influenza is more likely to develop severe flu if the patient’s physical condition is poor or combined with other underlying diseases. (Wang et al., 2017)


Almost all people are susceptible to the flu virus and has nothing to do with age, gender, occupation, etc. The antibody appears 1 week after infection, peaks at 2 to 3 weeks, begins to decline after 1 to 2 months, and falls to the lowest level in about 1 year. (Al Kahlout et al., 2019) Antibodies are present in blood and nasal secretions, but antibodies to nasal secretions are only about 5% in the blood.

There is no cross-immunization between the three types of influenza virus. The infection is not maintained for a long time after infection. According to the observation, although there are antibodies in the blood after 5 months of infection, the same type of virus can still be funded. The respiratory tract produces secreted antibodies that prevent the invasion of the virus. (Garcia-Sanchez et al., 2017) But when the local mucosal epithelial cells shed, they lose their protective effect. So local antibodies are more important than antibodies in the blood. (Al Kahlout et al., 2019)

The probability of human infection with avian influenza virus is small, mainly due to the following three factors. (Santak et al., 2013) First, the avian influenza virus is not easily recognized and combined by human cells; second, all influenza viruses that can spread in the population, its genome It must contain several human influenza virus gene fragments, but the avian influenza virus does not. (Gu et al., 2017) Third, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus has a large number of basic amino acids, making it difficult to replicate in the human body. (Sutton, 2018) Avian influenza viruses generally only infect birds. (Jimenez-Bluhm et al., 2019) When the virus undergoes genetic reorder during the replication process, resulting in structural changes, the ability to infect people can be obtained, which may lead to human infection with avian influenza. (Chatziprodromidou et al., 2018)

The flu vaccine does not cause people to get the flu, which is impossible in science or medicine. Because the injected vaccine is made from a killed virus, the dead virus does not cause disease. The nasal spray flu vaccine is made from inactivated live virus. Although this vaccine uses a ‘live’ virus, it is not active, which means it cannot spread and cause disease. Both vaccines can be used as primers for the immune system. They cause the body to ‘perceive’ the flu virus, so the immune system produces antibodies. In this case, if the virus is exposed, the immune system will have a greater chance to defeat it. Influenza vaccination certainly does not mean that 100% will not get the flu. After all, there are more than 200 flu viruses.


Reduce exposure to susceptible animals. Animals that are infectious to an infectious disease are called susceptible animals. Birds commonly found in daily life such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other waterfowl are most sensitive and mostly concealed. Other poultry such as pheasants, pheasants, ostriches, peacocks, pelicans and pigeons are also more susceptible to infection; waterfowl and dry birds can cause cross infection in the same field, and the virus can easily spread in large-scale chickens or ducks. . Wild and farmed waterfowl can be transmitted through the use of common water bodies, and in addition to infected birds, bird flu can also infect pigs. A healthy lifestyle is important to prevent the disease. In general, you should strengthen physical exercise, rest more, avoid overwork, do not smoke, wash your hands frequently; pay attention to personal hygiene, cover your mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing. Keep the room clean and open the window for 2 times a day. Keep the room clean, use washable floor mats, avoid using carpets that are difficult to clean, keep the floor, ceiling, furniture and walls clean, and ensure that the drains are unobstructed; keep indoor air circulation, and open the windows twice a day, at least twice a time. For 10 minutes, use an exhaust fan to keep the air flowing; try to get as little air as possible. It is intended to be hygienic, and it is necessary to eat poultry and eggs. Pay attention to food hygiene, eat poultry and eggs thoroughly, and pay attention to raw and cooked when processing and preserving food; develop good hygiene habits, do a good job in kitchen hygiene, not eat raw poultry and internal organs, and analyze live and dead after washing poultry, livestock and their products, wash your hands thoroughly; Valentine’s Day is about to go out for a romantic dinner. It is recommended to choose a place with good sanitation and good environment.

Find out the epidemic and try to avoid contact with poultry. When an outbreak is detected, contact with poultry should be avoided as much as possible; the public, especially children, should avoid close contact with poultry and wild birds. Pay attention to the disinfection of living utensils. Pay attention to the disinfection of living utensils. The avian flu virus is not heat resistant and can be inactivated at 100 ° C for 1 minute. It is sensitive to common disinfectants such as dry, ultraviolet radiation, mercury, and chlorine.


The outbreak of influenza occurs every year around the world. It affects the health of many people, especially the elderly and babies. In severe cases, it also has an impact on the economy of society as a whole. So for the flu, don’t ignore it as a common cold. Through this article, I hope that more knowledge and preventive measures about influenza virus can be known. Susceptible people must be vaccinated with the latest flu vaccine of the year, which is the best way to fight flu and group prevention! Although the current report of influenza vaccine will be in short supply. However, after we understand the basic common sense of the flu, there is absolutely no need to panic. However, if necessary, it is recommended that some people, such as weak constitution, low immunity, and long time in public, be injected. Protecting public safety, everyone is responsible


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